The last two decades in Central Europe have been characterized by many changes in foreign language education, with the aim to make language learning more efficient and to meet the changing needs of learners in the globalized world. Nowadays, language teachers are flooded by numerous teaching materials, new techniques and activities. However, to be able to use them effectively, they need to understand psychological mechanisms underlying language learning / teaching processes in order to be able to develop their learners' potentials effectively. This book analyses some psycholinguistic aspects of language learning and provides some ideas that can shed more light on what goes on in the classroom and in learners' minds. It also discusses some pressing questions related to teacher training and to the age of starting foreign language learning. The book could be of direct use to foreign language education professionals by helping them to better understand language learning processes. In addition, its ambition also is to stimulate more research interest in the field.