ISBN-10:
0132696185
ISBN-13:
9780132696180
Pub. Date:
02/09/2012
Publisher:
Pearson
Teaching in the Elementary School: A Reflective Action Approach / Edition 6

Teaching in the Elementary School: A Reflective Action Approach / Edition 6

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Overview

Teaching in the Elementary School: A Reflective Action Approach / Edition 6

What are the behaviors or actions that teachers take to create high quality original curricula and programs for their students? The authors have searched out the most creative and adventurous teachers they could find and have weaved their real-life stories into the text. The text shows how teachers can inspire their students while still meeting the federal, state, and local guidelines and testing standards required in today’s classrooms.


Chapter One begins with a new, updated Reflected Action in Teaching Model designed for teachers who are planning with standards in mind. Each chapter then begins with a new case of how a teacher has tackled a problem in this standards-based environment applying this model. Both hands-on and practical, the text also addresses how to incorporate technology in the classroom, empowering students to resolve conflicts, and preventing bullying.

In this sixth edition of Teaching in the Elementary School the reflective action model is explained and illustrated through new and expanded engaging case studies and classroom examples that illustrate how chapter concepts can be applied to the classroom. Readers will also find valuable coverage of differentiated instruction and collaboration. In addition, beginning teachers will find practical rubrics to help assess their continuing growth in such areas as classroom management, clarity and pacing of instruction, use of voice and body language, and much more!



The real-life examples will encourage new teachers to be as reflective, creative, and independent as possible in today’s teaching world.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780132696180
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 02/09/2012
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 312
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Adrienne Herrell received her Ph.D. from Florida State University in early childhood educa-tion/early literacy. She retired from California State University, Fresno, where she was a profes-sor in the department of Literacy and Early Education. She taught classes in early literacy and teaching second-language learners before she retired and moved back to Florida in 2004. Adri-enne recently retired again from Florida State University.
Adrienne is author or co-author of 15 other books published by Pearson including the most re-cent: Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (4th ed.) with Michael Jordan; Reflective Planning, Teaching and Evaluation K–12 with Judy Eby and Michael Jordan, and Thirty-Five Classroom Management Strategies: Promoting Learning and Building Community with Michael Jordan. Adrienne taught for 23 years in public schools in Florida but considers rais-ing five sons to be her most challenging and valuable life experience.

Michael Jordan has also recently retired from California State University, Fresno, where he was an associate professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and taught classes in curriculum, classroom management, and social foundations. He has taught primary grades through high school in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and California. Dr. Jordan is also an actor, musician, and former B-52 pilot. His work in live theatre is dedicated to providing access to the arts to children and youth. He and Dr. Herrell incorporate many dramatic reenactment strategies into their joint research working with English learners. This is Dr. Jordan’s ninth book for Pearson.

Judy Eby began her teaching career at a Head Start program in Coronado, California. She has been a classroom teacher, a gifted program coordinator, a teacher educator (DePaul University, University of San Diego, and San Diego State University), and a mentor teacher in the Beginning Teacher Support Academy with the San Diego Unified School District. In 1983, she wrote a mas-ter’s thesis on gifted behavior and published two articles on that subject in Educational Leader-ship in 1983 and 1984. One of those articles caught the attention of Benjamin S. Bloom, who corresponded with Judy and wrote, “I think you are on the right track.”
This led to the opportunity to attain her Ph.D. at Northwestern University with Bloom as her dissertation chairman and advisor. In 1986, she wrote her Ph.D. dissertation on gifted behavior as a developmental process rather than an innate and unchanging trait. Essentially, she asked the question, “What are the behaviors that people use to originate and create high-quality original products in the talent area of their choice?” The 10 behaviors that she found to be correlated with this type of success are perceptiveness, active interaction with the environment, reflectiveness, persistence, independence, goal orientation, originality, productivity, self-evaluation, and com-munication of findings.
She published the Gifted Behavior Index and her first book, A Thoughtful Overview of Gifted Education, in 1990.
Turning her attention to teacher education as a professor of education at DePaul University in Chicago, Judy reinterpreted her construct of gifted behavior in terms of teacher education, and called this related construct “reflective actions in teaching.” This time she asked the question, “What are the behaviors or actions that teachers use to create high-quality original school curric-ula and programs to meet the needs of their students?” The answers to this question are contained in this textbook as a model and operational definition of reflective action teaching. Essentially, the process includes the same 10 gifted behaviors she had studied earlier, although they have been transformed into language that teachers can recognize and use to discuss issues related to their profession.
Judy has actively used her own research to make decisions about her own life choices. She feels that using reflective action has benefited her in her marriage, raising her children, friend-ships, and leisure and volunteer activities. She participates in children’s literacy programs on both sides of the San Diego-Tijuana border. Her most treasured project is the Tecolote Centro de Comunidad, a children’s center in Tijuana, where she has created a children’s library for the community. She also participates in before- and after-school programs on both sides of the bor-der.

Table of Contents

Chapter One


Reflective Action in Teaching
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
THE REFLECTIVE ACTION MODEL
Definitions of Reflective Thinking and Action
The Reflective Practitioner
How to Develop as a Reflective Practitioner
REFELCTIVE ACTION BUILDS ON WITHITNESS
Defining Withitness
Reflective Action as It Relates to Withitness
How to Improve Your Withitness
A GRAPHIC MODEL OF REFLECTIVE ACTION IN TEACHING
The Spiral Curriculum
The Art of Teaching
The Planning Process
STANDARDS THAT APPLY TO REFLECTIVE ACTION IN TEACHING
National Teaching Standards
REFLECTING ON YOUR ETHICS, BELIEFS, AND PRINCIPLES
Professional Organizations and Ethical Standards
Ethical Caring
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References


Chapter Two


Creating a Safe, Healthy, and Happy Classroom
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
Withitness, Observing Students to Learn from Them
PRACTICAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Connectedness
Strategies to Meet Students’ Needs
Building a Cooperative Climate
PLANNING FOR THE FIRST DAY OF SCHOOL
Teaching Style
Classroom Management Strategies
Leadership Style
Monitoring Behavior
Teacher Body Language
Proximity Control
Establishing Rules and Consequences
How to Conduct a Rule-Setting Activity with your Class
Using Positive Consequences and Rewards
Classroom Meetings
How to Conduct a Class Meeting
ISSUES IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Economic and Social Differences May Cause Varied Expectations of Students
A System of Moral Discipline

Cheating by Students and Teachers

CONFRONTING SCHOOL BULLIES

Effective Anti-Bullying Programs

Teaching Students How to Resolve Conflicts
Reflective Action Case Study: Teaching Language Arts Standards in Conjunction With a Conflict Resolution Unit

SCHEDULING TIME FOR ACTIVE LEARNING

Daily and Weekly Schedules
Planning Time

INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Three


Lesson Planning and Sequencing
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
LESSON PLANNING
Leaders in Lesson Planning
Clarifying Educational Goals and Outcomes
Writing Useful and Appropriate Outcome Statements
Formats for Standards
WRITING OBJECTIVES TO FIT GOALS AND OUTCOME STATEMENTS
Educational Objectives
How to Write Behavioral Objectives
Levels of Objectives
Problem-Solving Objectives
Planning for Higher-Level Thinking
PLANNING LESSONS FOR ACTIVE LEARNING
Planning Assessments That Fit Your Lesson’s Objectives
Predicting Possible Outcomes of Your Lesson Plans
Adapting Activities for Differentiating Instruction
WRITING A WELL-ORGANIZED LESSON PLAN
Lesson Plan Models
Special Consideration in Planning Problem-Solving Lessons
SEQUENCING OBJECTIVES IN SCHOOL SUBJECTS
Sequencing Objectives in Mathematics
Sequencing Objectives in Language Arts
Sequencing Objectives in Science
Sequencing Objectives in Social Studies
SAMPLE LESSON PLANS
Sample First-Grade Writing Lesson Plan
Sample Science Lesson Plan
Sample Social Studies Problem-Solving Lesson Plan
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY

References


Chapter Four


Planning Curriculum Units
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
What is the Role of Education?
HOW SCHOOL CURRICULA ARE PLANNED
National Standards and Federal Mandates
The Discussion about National Curriculum Standards
State Standards Are the Basis for Curriculum Planning
Other Influences That Affect Curriculum Development
Evaluation and Use of Textbooks
PLANNING THEMATIC UNITS TO FIT YOUR CURRICULUM
Backward Mapping: Building Units Based on State Standards
Deciding on Unit Topics
Creating a Curriculum Unit Using Reflective Actions
SEQUENCING LEARNING EXPERIENCES
DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM TO REFLECT MULTICULTURAL VALUES
Planning Curriculum for a Multicultural, Bilingual Classroom
Time Lines That Fit Your Goals and Outcome Statements
Collaborative Long-Term Planning
EXAMPLES OF LONG-TERM CURRICULUM PLANNING
Language Arts Planning for the Primary Grades
EXAMPLES OF THEMATIC UNITS
A Multidisciplinary Primary Unit
Fourth-Grade Social Studies/Literature Unit
An Upper Elementary Mathematics Unit
A Science Unit at Eagle Bluff Environmental Education Park
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Five

Differentiating Instruction
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
Starting the School Year
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND THE CLASSROOM TEACHER
Language Scaffolding
The Stages in Language Acquisition
Optimal Levels of Instruction
FIVE FACTORS IN DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION FOR DIVERSE STUDENTS
ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF ALL STUDENTS
Addressing the Needs of Gifted Students
Addressing the Needs of Exceptional Education Students
Addressing the Needs of Students Who are Not Working at Grade Level
How to Plan for a Variety of Learning Styles
Interactive Goal Setting
BUILDING SELF-ESTEEM AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
The Enhancing Effects of Success
Classrooms as Communities
USING ASSESSMENT DEVICES TO IDENTIFY STUDENT NEEDS
Interpreting Data from Students’ Cumulative Files
Avoiding Student Labels
Using Pretests to Diagnose Student Needs
Placement and Grouping Decisions
Performance Sampling
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References


Chapter Six


Using Teaching Strategies that Engage Students in Active, Authentic Learning
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
Authentic Learning
RETRIEVAL PROCESS
Schema Theory
Advance Organizers
Differentiated Instructional Strategies FOR Authentic Learning
Acceleration Strategies
PRESENTATION SKILLS THAT INCREASE CLARITY AND MOTIVATION
Getting Students’ Attention
Enthusiasm
Clarity
Smooth Transitions
Timing
Variation
Interaction
Closure
Active, Authentic Learning Experiences
SYSTEMATIC CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION
How to Provide Direct Instruction of New Knowledge and Skills
Teacher Modeling and Demonstration
Structuring Tasks for Success
Matching Learning Styles and Teaching Styles
Learning Experiences Designed for Multiple Intelligences
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Seven

Developing a Repertoire of Teaching Strategies
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
EXAMPLES OF TEACHING STRATEGIES IN ACTION
Discovery Learning
Inquiry Training
Role Playing
Story Telling
Simulation
Mastery Learning
Contracts for Independent Learning
Reflective Action Case Study: Establishing Learning Centers
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES
Learning Teams Enhance Achievement
Cooperative Learning of the Basic Skills
Cooperative Learning in Science
Creating Well-Balanced Cooperative Groups
The Effects of Cooperative Learning
ADDITIONAL FORMATS FOR COOPERATIVE GROUPS
Literature Circles
Peacemaking Groups
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Eight


Engaging Students in Classroom Discussions
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
ASKING QUESTIONS THAT STIMULATE HIGHER LEVEL THINKING
STRATEGIES FOR INTERACTIVE DISCUSSIONS
Problem-Solving Discussions
Group Investigations
Discussions That Promote Critical Thinking
Discussions That Improve Observation Skills
Discussions That Enhance Comparing Skills
Discussions That Guide Classification Skills
Discussions That Identify Assumptions
Socratic Dialogues
Discussions That Enhance Creative Thinking
Discussions That Encourage Imagination and Inventiveness
Prewriting Discussions
Discussions That Address Multiple Intelligences
ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN LEADING DISCUSSIONS
How to Encourage Participation in Class Discussion
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Nine


Balancing Standards and Creative Activities
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
THE IMPORTANCE OF IMAGINATIVE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES
PROVIDIING MATERIALS FOR CREATIVE PROJECTS
Materials from Homes
Materials from Merchants
Other Sources of Materials
SETTING A CREATIVE TONE
The Importance of a Creative Atmosphere in School
How to Encourage Creativity in Children
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Stereotypes Stifle Creativity
Ways to Demonstrate Valuing Creativity
Core Attitudes in Creative Thought
Creativity in the Language Arts
E-mail Stories
Creative Activities in Mathematics
Creative Activities in Social Sciences
Creative Activities in Science
Creative Activities in the Visual and Performing Arts
Humor and Creativity
Styles of Humor-Oriented Teaching
Creative Training
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Ten

Assessing and Reporting Student Accomplishments
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
HOW TEACHERS SELECT AND USE ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
Informal Observations
Performance Tasks to Show Mastery of Objectives
Criterion-Referenced Quizzes and Tests
Mastery Learning Assessment
Essays Evaluated with Rubric Guidelines
Oral Reports and Examinations
DESIGNING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT TASKS
Rubrics, Checklists, and Rating Scales
Learning Contracts
Portfolios of Student Products
Reflective Action Case Study: Teacher’s Reflection on Portfolio Assessment
VideoRecords
GRADING COOPERATIVE GROUP PROJECTS AND PRODUCTS
REPORTING STUDENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Computation of Grades
Using Anecdotal Records to Report Progress
INVOLVING STUDENTS IN EVALUATION PROCEDURES
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Eleven

Involving the Larger Community: Collaboration to Support Continuous Im-provement
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
KEY PLAYERS IN EDUCATIONAL COLLABORATION

Administrators and Their Role in Collaboration

Parents as Team Members

How to Encourage Parent Involvement

Local Museums, Libraries, and Learning Sources

How to Use Museums and Libraries in Planning Curriculum

Expanding the Collaboration: Other Community Resources, Businesses, Individuals

How to Tap into Community Resources for Support for Your School

AN EXAMPLE OF A SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATION: THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVE-MENT MODEL

Key Tenants of CIM

The “Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) Cycle

No Excuses

Planning for Success: Tutorials and Enrichment

The Rewards of Continuous Improvement

Planning Tutorials

How to Plan Enrichment Activities

A Summary and Review of the Continuous Improvement Model

Measures of Pupil Achievement as an Indicator of Program Success

CONSIDERING THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY

HOW TO GET EVERYONE INVOLVED

GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Chapter Twelve

Improving the Effectiveness of Your Teaching

Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
RESOURCES FOR PROFESSIONAL GROWTH

Professional Organizations, Journals, and Conferences

Personal Research

SELF REFLECTION AND IMPROVEMENT PLANS

How to Improve the Effectiveness and Use of Your Voice and Body Language

Symptoms

Solutions

Self-Reflection Rubric

Clarity and Pace in Your Presentations

Symptoms

Solutions

How to Improve Clarity and Pacing in Your Teaching

Self-Reflection Rubric

How to Improve Your Classroom Management

Symptoms

Solutions

Some Common Classroom Management Situations
Self-Reflection Rubric

GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY
References

Name Index

Subject Index

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