Pub. Date:
Prentice Hall
Teaching in the Outdoors / Edition 4

Teaching in the Outdoors / Edition 4

by Donald R. Hammerman


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780813430096
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 05/28/1994
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 286

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter, with the exception of Chapter 8, concludes with a Summary and Suggested Readings.)
1. Why Teach Outside the Classroom?

What is Outdoor Education? A Bit of Historical Background. What Basic Needs are Met Through Outdoor Education? Values of Outdoor Education. Where Can Outdoor Education Take Place?

2. Outdoor Teaching Techniques.
Inquiry in an Outdoor Laboratory. The Direct Experience Approach in Learning to Recognize Trees. The Clue Chart Approach Applied to the Study of Rocks and Minerals. Solving Problems About a River. Using a Field Trip Guide Sheet. Questioning Techniques.

3. Extending the School Curriculum to the Outdoors.
The Teacher as Outdoor Leader. Activities in the Outdoors. Teachable Moments. Seasonal Themes. Themes Focusing on the Natural Features of an Area. Outdoor Learning Activities Related to the School Curriculum.

4. Learning Experiences for Outdoor Laboratories.
“Just Beyond the Chalkboard” —The Schoolyard. “Down the Street or Across Town” —The City Park or a Vacant Lot. Urban Environment. “A Short Bus Trip” —to . . . a State Park, a National Forest, or a National Park. Special Areas. Packaged Programs.

5. Resident Outdoor Education Programs.
Benefits of Resident Outdoor Education to Teachers and Students. Value of ROE to Parents and Community. Identifying ProgramGoals. Organization of Resident Programs. Planning and Implementing a Resident OE Program. Academic Program Activities, Materials, and Equipment. Evaluation and Classroom Follow-up. Special Resident Outdoor Education Projects.

6. Evaluation Procedures in Outdoor Education.
Performance Objectives. Learning Processes. Authentic Assessment. Evaluation Tools. Evaluation Procedures Survey.

7. What Does Research Tell the Outdoor Educator?
School Camping and Outdoor Education. Environmental Education. Wilderness/Adventure Education. Teacher Education. Bibliography.

8. The Roots of Outdoor Education: Historical Perspective.
Introduction. Early Influences: The Pre-1930 Period. The Period of Inception: 1930-1939. The Period of Experimentation: 1940-1952. The Period of Standardization: 1953-1964. The Period of Resurgence and Innovation: 1965-1969. The Period of New Directions: 1970-1985. The Period of Diversity and Networking: 1986-. Bibliography.



In his foreword to the First Edition, L. B. Sharp, noted pioneer in outdoor education, wrote, "This book, Teaching in the Outdoors, will aid greatly in learning and understanding those segments of the basic school curriculum that exist in the out-of-doors for all subject-matter areas at all grade levels." Teaching in the Outdoors has withstood the test of time. The book has endured through four previous editions and has become a minor classic in its field. It is the only text dealing with outdoor education, of which we are aware, that has been in print since 1964. The book has been used extensively not only in the United States but throughout the world. The Third Edition was translated and published in Japan; the Fourth Edition, in China.

Outdoor education programs, particularly at the elementary and middle school levels, as well as in selected secondary schools, colleges, and universities, are expanding unabated. Teaching in the Outdoors is designed specifically for pre- and in-service teachers, school administrators, and college and university personnel. Agency and private camp personnel will also find this book useful as a source of program ideas. This text may also point the way for extending the use of summer camp facilities into the school year.

The scope of the materials presented here is by no means an exhaustive and exhausting treatment of the field of outdoor education. Teaching in the Outdoors presents a brief, concise point of view representing our philosophy, derived from our collective experience as outdoor educators. The thoughts, ideas, and information-offered here will, we trust, aid others in helping students andteachers become better acquainted with the use of the outdoors as a laboratory for learning.

When the First Edition of Teaching in the Outdoors appeared in 1964, computers were not common in either homes or schools, and web sites were unknown. Now that the Information Age has arrived, more sophisticated methods of recording and transmitting information and data are possible. Each year, more and more electronic databases, knowledge maps, and library collections are becoming readily available and accessible to both teachers and students.

The Fifth Edition of Teaching in the Outdoors has attempted to recognize these electronic information resources by including Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) references and World Wide Web URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) when appropriate. Welcome to the Information Age, in which students will need opportunities to learn in the outdoors more than ever.


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