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Teaching Young Children: An Introduction / Edition 4

Teaching Young Children: An Introduction / Edition 4

by Michael L. Henniger
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  • Product Details

    ISBN-13: 2900135137467
    Publisher: Pearson
    Publication date: 03/04/2008
    Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
    Edition description: Older Edition
    Pages: 576
    Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

    About the Author

    Michael Henniger is a retired professor emeritus of early childhood education at Western Washington University. Prior to his 20 years at Western Washington University, he taught early childhood education courses at Northern Illinois University, Central Washington University, and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. His teaching and research interests include preschool and primary curriculum, play, learning environments, and family/community involvement in education. While completing his doctoral degree at the University of Texas at Austin, Dr. Henniger taught preschool children in the university lab school. His public school experiences were in rural Alaska, where he taught first and second grades and high school mathematics.

    Table of Contents

    IIntroduction to the Field1
    1Overview of the Profession2
    Foundations of Early Childhood Education5
    The Scope of Early Childhood Education8
    Funding: Who Pays for Early Education?14
    Teaching Young Children19
    Professional Preparation of Early Childhood Caregivers26
    Resources for Professional Development30
    2Historical Contexts36
    Historical Figures Influencing Early Childhood Education38
    Historical Events Influencing Early Education54
    3Types of Programs62
    The Montessori Program64
    The High/Scope Curriculum70
    The Behaviorist Approach75
    The Bank Street Model78
    The Reggio Emilia Program82
    4Understanding How a Child Develops and Learns92
    The Developmentally Appropriate Classroom94
    Key Perspectives on Learning and Development96
    Children: Developmental Similarities and Differences108
    Learning about Children122
    5Play in Childhood128
    Defining Play131
    Why Children Play: Theories134
    Cognitive Play Types138
    Social Play Types139
    Benefits of Play142
    Facilitating Childhood Play147
    6Guiding Young Children156
    What Is Guidance?158
    Principles of Guidance161
    Guiding Routines170
    Dealing with Feelings and Emotions173
    Guiding Social Interactions175
    Group Guidance179
    Guidance for Children with Special Needs181
    7Working with Parents, Families, and Communities186
    Family Life Today189
    Is Involvement Worth the Effort?194
    Building Strong Two-Way Relationships196
    Effective Communication Methods200
    Factors Influencing Quality Involvement206
    Parent-Teacher Conflicts208
    Families of Children with Special Needs208
    Connecting with the Community209
    8Diversity Issues and Young Children216
    Diversity as a Foundation218
    Attitudes about Diversity219
    Encouraging an Acceptance of Diversity222
    Inappropriate Responses to Diversity Issues225
    Integrating Diversity throughout the Curriculum227
    Individuals with Special Needs232
    Issues of Gender Equity235
    Working with Parents and the Community238
    IIIOrganizing for Instruction243
    9Planning the Physical Environment: Indors244
    Planning Guidelines246
    The Centers-Based Classroom252
    Age-Related Considerations260
    Selecting Equipment and Materials266
    Children with Special Needs270
    Changing the Physical Environment270
    Health and Safety Issues272
    A Place for Parents?274
    10Planning the Physical Environment: Outdoors278
    Importance of Outdoor Play280
    Planning Guidelines281
    Play Areas Outdoors285
    Developmental Considerations289
    Selecting Equipment and Materials297
    Planning for Change in the Outdoor Environment299
    Health and Safety on the Playground301
    Parent and Community Involvement304
    Committing to the Outdoor Environment305
    11Activity Planning and Assessment310
    Creating a Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum312
    The Integrated Curriculum322
    The Project Approach326
    Scheduling Issues328
    Involving Parents335
    IVThe Curriculum341
    12Enhancing Physical Development342
    The Importance of Motor Skills344
    Foundation for Physical Fitness346
    The Components of Physical Development347
    Teaching Physical Development352
    Enhancing Physical Development Indoors356
    Enhancing Physical Development Outdoors358
    Teaching Children to Care for Their Bodies362
    Working with Parents and Families364
    13Supporting Social and Emotional Development370
    Toward Social Competence372
    The Social Development Curriculum379
    Helping Children with Emotional Development382
    Materials and Activities for Emotional Development385
    Stress as a Factor in Social and Emotional Development385
    Teachers' Personal Development388
    Connecting with Parents and Families390
    14Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Learning394
    Goals of the Cognitive Curriculum396
    The Constructivist Approach399
    Mathematics and Young Children400
    Science Learning405
    Young Children and Social Studies410
    Integrating Cognitive Learning throughout the Curriculum413
    Parental Roles in Cognitive Development416
    15Language and Literacy Learning422
    Language Learning425
    Literacy Learning432
    Encouraging Parent Involvement441
    16Using the Creative Arts to Support Development and Learning448
    What Is Creativity?451
    The Young Artist454
    Music and the Young Child462
    Activities in Art and Music467
    17Using Technology to Support Development and Learning476
    Television and Young Children479
    The Video Game Dilemma482
    Can Computers Be Used in Developmentally Appropriate Ways?483
    Selecting Computers and Software Programs488
    Computers in the Classroom494
    Interacting with Children Using Computers494


    Educators involved in teacher preparation occasionally hear students make statements such as "I wasn't successful teaching fourth grade, but I know I can do better with younger children. They're great fun to be around and so easy to teach." Although it is true that young children are exciting and enjoyable, teaching them is far from easy. Students new to the field of early childhood education need to develop an awareness of both the challenges and the joys involved in working with young children. This book presents both perspectives, providing a comprehensive, balanced overview of early childhood education.

    Conceptual Framework of the Text

    This textbook provides an introduction to the field of early childhood education. It provides a framework for understanding how to teach children from birth through age eight by clearly identifying and discussing five foundations of early childhood education. Each element is a critical component of quality programs for young children:

    1. An understanding of children and their development. Educational experiences for young children need to be based on children's developmental abilities and interests. An understanding of child growth and development is a necessary starting point for early childhood education.
    2. Opportunities to play. Young children from birth through age eight need times during their school day to engage in quality play experiences, both indoors and on the playground. Play is one of the most important ways for young children to learn about the world around them.
    3. Guiding young children. Assisting with the social and emotional development ofyoung children is another key element of early education. Guidance in these areas requires a strong knowledge of child development and sensitive interactions between adults and children.
    4. Working with parents, families, and communities. The development of mutually supportive relationships with parents, families, and the community is another essential element of teaching at this level. Strong relationships help ensure maximum opportunities for growth and development in young children.
    5. Diversity issues and young children. An understanding of, and respect for, diversity is the final essential element of early education. Differences due to culture, gender, and physical and/or mental capabilities influence each of the other four foundational elements and must be studied, understood, and discussed in the early childhood classroom.

    Each of these five foundational elements is discussed in an individual chapter dedicated to the topic (see Part II). To emphasize the importance of these themes, however, a discussion of child development, play, guidance, family and community partnerships, and diversity is also integrated into each chapter of the book.

    Organization of the Text

    The text is organized into four major parts. Part I is an overview and introduction to the field of early education. Chapter 1 describes the different program options for young children, discusses how these options are funded, outlines the roles and responsibilities of teachers, and describes teacher preparation programs. Chapter 2 discusses historical figures and events that have had a major influence on early education today. Chapter 3 identifies five early childhood program models: Montessori education, the High/Scope curriculum, the behaviorist approach, the Bank Street model, and the Reggio Emilia program.

    Part II specifically focuses on the five foundational elements of early childhood education. Chapter 4 addresses child development and learning and provides an overview of this important topic. Chapter 5 presents play as an essential element of early education and offers a strong rationale for including play in the classroom. Chapter 6 deals with guiding young children and addresses issues related to helping children successfully manage their emotions and strengthen their social interactions. Chapter 7 provides an overview of home, school, and community relationships. The chapter emphasizes building strong two-way relationships through quality communications. Chapter 8 discusses diversity issues in the early childhood classroom and also describes strategies for integrating diversity into the core of the curriculum.

    Part III addresses planning and assessment issues in early childhood education. Chapter 9 describes the planning and preparation needed for the indoor classroom and discusses a centers-based approach to classroom organization. Chapter 10 provides details for preparing an outdoor play area for young children. Unique to introductory texts, this chapter includes a detailed discussion of the elements needed for quality outdoor play experiences. Chapter 11 addresses activity planning and assessment issues in the early childhood classroom. The chapter includes discussion of an integrated curriculum and the project approach.

    Part IV provides specific information on the major elements of the early childhood curriculum. Chapter 12 addresses physical development and the teacher's role in facilitating motor learning. Chapter 13 discusses specific ways in which teachers can assist with social and emotional development in young children. Chapter 14 emphasizes the mathematics, science, and social studies curriculum. Chapter 15 addresses language and literacy learning in the early childhood classroom. Chapter 16 describes art and music experiences that are appropriate for young children and presents a rationale for including them in the curriculum. Chapter 17 discusses television viewing, video games, and computer use by young children. The chapter also describes the developmentally appropriate use of computers in the early childhood classroom.

    Special Features of the Text

    This text was designed to be reader-friendly and uses a clear, well-organized, informative, and personal writing style. Throughout the text, the reader encounters thorough overviews of important topics and current references for further study. Vignettes of children and teachers and questions presented throughout the chapters encourage the reader to think, reflect, and discuss with others the topics presented.

    Teaching Young Children: An Introduction is unique in several ways:

    • First, the five foundations of early education are clearly identified. These elements are discussed in individual chapters and then integrated into the content of later chapters of the book.
    • A second unique element is the separate chapter on outdoor play. Although several other texts present information on planning outdoor play environments, this text provides a complete chapter identifying the outdoor play area as a significant component of early education.
    • Finally, the concluding chapter on technology is unique in its description of play-oriented, developmentally appropriate computer experiences.

    Several special features were built into the text to assist the reader's understanding of important concepts and to add interest.

    • Each chapter opens with a short vignette designed to give the reader a mental image of early childhood classrooms and issues related to the content of the chapter. These real-world images help the content come to life and stimulate interest in the chapter discussion.
    • To emphasize the importance of play and diversity issues, each chapter also includes either a special feature called "Celebrating Play" or another called "Celebrating Diversity." Each provides useful information about play or diversity related to the chapter content.
    • The "Into Practice" feature boxes describe practical classroom applications of the chapter content, helping readers to make the transition from theory to practice and providing them with successful classroom-tested strategies.
    • NEW—The margin notes for technology integration are new to this second edition. They are designed as guides to activities and information located on the Companion Website ( accompanying this text. Look for the CW icon.
    • NEW—Also new to this second edition is a Multimedia Explorations and Activities component located at the end of each chapter. Using the Companion Video Series described in the section that follows and other World Wide Web resources, students engage in activities to apply what they have learned in each chapter.

    Ancillaries and Supplements

    Several additional materials are available for instructor and student use to support learning and instruction:

    • An instructor's manual includes suggestions for teaching, additional instructional resources, and test items for each chapter.
    • Test items are available to instructors in the instructor's manual or in electronic format in the Prentice Hall Test Manager package, which allows instructors to create customized exams on a personal computer.
    • The Companion Video Series includes two cassettes, Current Issues in Early Childhood Education, Volumes 2 and 3. Free to professors upon adoption of this textbook, these cassettes feature 9 thought-provoking video segments of varying length chosen from award-winning news programs on ABC. These segments are integrated into the text via selected Multimedia Explorations and Activities boxes featured at the end of each chapter. Look for the ABC video icon.
    • The Companion Website ( is a web-based resource that has been significantly expanded for the second edition of this text. For each chapter there is a Chapter Overview, a student Study Guide that includes sample Multiple Choice, True/False, and Essay Questions, Reflecting on Teaching*; Multimedia Explorations and Activities*; and Web Destinations*. In addition, there is a chat room (i-chat) for online discussions, a message board, and a link to the ECE Supersite* created by Merrill Publishing. Instructors also have access to the Website's Syllabus Manager tool. (* items are new to the second edition.) Look for the CW icon in the margins of the text and in the Multimedia Explorations and Activities boxes.


    No book of this complexity can be completed without the assistance of a great many competent and supportive people. Grateful thanks are given to the following staff at Merrill/Prentice Hall: Ann Davis, executive senior editor; Gianna Marsella, senior development editor; Sheryl Langner, production editor; and Sandy Lenahan, photo coordinator. Their support and assistance throughout this process have been invaluable.

    I also thank the reviewers of this text for their thoughtful commentary and helpful suggestions. They are Eleanor Duff, Southeast Missouri State University; Pat Hofbauer, Northwest State Community College; Peg A. Ketron-Marose, United States Air Force; Lynn Lessie, Atlantic Cape Community College; Sima Lesser, Miami Dade Community College; and Kevin J. Swick, University of South Carolina.

    Many thanks go to my wife, Lisa, as well. Her willingness and ability to provide primary care for our four children (including a newborn and two-year-old at the time of this writing) has allowed me to take the time I needed to complete the revisions for this second edition. Thank you, Lisa, for your continued flexibility, for your encouraging words, and for the understanding you displayed throughout the process.

    Michael L. Henniger

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