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Technical Communication / Edition 9

Technical Communication / Edition 9

by John M. Lannon


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Technical Communication, Eleventh Edition John M. Lannon

1.2 million reasons to buy this book…
John Lannon's Technical Communication has helped more than 1.2 million students become better technical writers, equipping them with the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in a wide range of professions. Lannon is unwavering in his effort to keep abreast of current issues and trends in the workplace–and to weave their implications into the instruction this book provides. What you’ll find here is a realistic portrayal of today’s workplace that prepares you for any career you choose.

There are over a million reasons to buy this book–but here are more good reasons to buy this edition of Technical Communication.

  • The introductory chapter redefines the role of technical communicators as information managers, using contemporary technology to deliver their messages,
  • A new dedicated chapter on employment correspondence (Ch. 18) focuses on what you really need to know to look for–and get–you first job.
  • New content on corporate blogs and wikis (Ch. 16) reflects the realities of today’s workplace communication and information delivery.
  • New Case Studies put you in the middle of real workplace decision-making.

And as always:

  • A heavy focus on the rhetorical principles will teach you to shape your writing and pointedly reach your intended audience.
  • Lucid, straightforward instruction will clarify even the most troublesome of topics.
  • Checklists summarize the instruction to help you extract key topics.
  • Guidelines offer step-by-step strategies and walk you through an array of procedures and undertakings.

Where can you find resources to complement your book and bolster your practice?

Get everything you need for the course at

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780321089793
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 07/13/2002
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 816
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 8.94(h) x 0.92(d)

Table of Contents

** indicates new material

1. Introduction to Technical Communication

Technical Communication Is User-Centered

Technical Communication Is Accessible

Sample Document: A Citizen's Guide to Bioremediation

Technical Communication Comes in All Shapes and Sizes

Technical Communicators Rely on Many Skills

Technical Communication Is Part of Most Careers

Communication Has Both an Electronic and a Human Side

Communication Reaches a Diverse Audience

Consider This: Twenty-First Century Jobs Require Portable Skills

On the Job…Types of Writing


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

Part I


2. Preparing an Effective Technical Document

Complete the Key Tasks

Case Study: Completing the Key Tasks: Delivering the Essential Information; Making a Persuasive Case; Weighing the Ethical Issues; Working on a Team

Rely on Creative and Critical Thinking

Checklist: Creative and Critical Thinking in the Writing Process

Make Proofreading Your Final Step

Guidelines for Proofreading

Checklist: Proofreading

Consider This: Workplace Settings Are Increasingly Virtual


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

3. Delivering Usable Information

Know What Different Audiences Expect

Assess the Audience’s Information Needs

Identify Levels of Technicality

The Highly Technical Document

Sample Document: A Technical Version of an Emergency Treatment Report

The Semitechnical Document

Sample Document: A Semitechnical Version of an Emergency Treatment Report

The Nontechnical Document

Sample Document: A Nontechnical Version of an Emergency Treatment Report

Primary and Secondary Audiences

Case Study: Tailoring a Single Document for Different Users

Web-based Documents for Multiple Audiences

Develop an Audience and Use Profile

Audience Characteristics

Purpose of the Document

Intended Use of the Document

Audience’s Technical Background

Audience’s Cultural Background

Performance Objectives for This Document

Sample Document: Performance Objectives for Using the Model 76 Boban Lawnmower


Possible Hazards or Sources of Error

Appropriate Details and Layout

Due Date and Timing

Create a Design Plan for the Document

Sample Document: Design Plan for the Lawnmower Manual

Write, Test, and Revise Your Document

Checklist: Usability

Consider This: Communication Failure Can Have Drastic Consequences

On the Job…Audiences


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

4. Being Persuasive

Identify Your Specific Goal

Try to Predict Audience Reaction

Expect Audience Resistance

Know How to Connect with the Audience

Case Study: Connecting with Your Audience: Power Connection; Relationship Connection; Rational Connection

Allow for Give-and-Take

Ask for a Specific Response

Never Ask for Too Much

Recognize All Constraints

Organizational Constraints

Legal Constraints

Ethical Constraints

Time Constraints

Social and Psychological Constraints

Consider This: People Often React Emotionally to Persuasive Appeals

Support Your Claims Convincingly

Offer Convincing Evidence

Appeal to Common Goals and Values

Consider the Cultural Context

Guidelines for Making Your Case

Shaping Your Argument

Sample document: Supporting a Claim with Good Reasons

Checklist: Cross-Cultural Documents

On the Job…Persuasive Challenges


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

5. Weighing the Ethical Issues

Recognize Unethical Communication in the Workplace

Know the Major Causes of Unethical Communication

Yielding to Social Pressure

Mistaking Groupthink for Teamwork

Understand the Potential for Communication Abuse

Suppressing Knowledge the Public Needs

Hiding Conflicts of Interest

Exaggerating Claims about Technology

Falsifying or Fabricating Data

Using Visual Images That Conceal the Truth

Stealing or Divulging Proprietary Information

Misusing Electronic Information

Withholding Information People Need for Their Jobs

Exploiting Cultural Differences

Rely on Critical Thinking for Ethical Decisions

Reasonable Criteria for Ethical Judgment

Ethical Dilemmas

Anticipate Some Hard Choices

Case Study: A Hard Choice

Never Depend Only on Legal Guidelines

Learn to Recognize Plagiarism

Consider This: Ethical Standards Are Good for Business

Decide Where and How to Draw the Line

Guidelines for Ethical Communication

Checklist: Ethical Communication

On the Job…Ethical Issues


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

6. Working in Teams

Teamwork and Project Management

Guidelines for Managing a Collaborative Project

Sample Document: Form for Evaluating Team Members

Conducting Meetings

Guidelines for Running a Meeting

Sources of Conflict in Collaborative Groups

Interpersonal Differences

Gender and Cultural Differences

Managing Group Conflict

Overcoming Differences by Active Listening

Guidelines for Active Listening

Thinking Creatively





Reviewing and Editing Others’ Work

Guidelines for Peer Reviewing and Editing

Face-to-Face vs. Electronically Mediated Collaboration

Ethical Abuses in Workplace Collaboration

Consider This: How You Speak Shows Where You Rank

On the Job…Collaborative Writing


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

Part II


7. Thinking Critically about the Research Process

Asking the Right Questions

Case Study: Defining and Refining a Research Question

Exploring a Balance of Views

Achieving Adequate Depth in Your Search

Evaluating Your Findings

Interpreting Your Findings

Consider This: Expert Opinion Is Not Always Reliable

Guidelines for Evaluating Expert Information


8. Exploring Electronic and Hard Copy Sources

Internet Sources

Online News and Magazines

Government Sites

Community Discussion Groups and Bulletin Boards

Blogs and Wikis

Email Lists

Library Chatrooms

Library Databases Searchable via the Internet

Other Types of Web Sites

Intranets and Extranets

Guidelines for Researching on the Internet

Other Electronic Sources

Compact Discs

Online Retrieval Services

Hard Copy Sources

Reference Works

Card Catalog

Guides to Literature



Access Tools for U.S. Government Publications


Consider This: Frequently Asked Questions about Copyright of Hard Copy Information

Consider This: Information in Electronic Form is Copyright Protected

On the Job…The Role of Research


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

9. Exploring Primary Sources

Informative Interviews

Guidelines for Informative Interviews

Surveys and Questionnaires

Defining the Survey’s Purpose and Target Population

Identifying the Sample Group

Defining the Survey Method

Guidelines for Developing a Questionnaire

A Sample Questionnaire

Sample Documents: Cover Letter and Questionnaire

Inquiry Letters, Phone Calls, and Email Inquiries

Public Records and Organizational Publications

Personal Observation and Experiments

On the Job…The Role of Research


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

10. Evaluating and Interpreting Information

Evaluate the Sources

Guidelines for Evaluating Sources on the Web

Evaluate the Evidence

Guidelines for Evaluating Evidence

Interpret Your Findings

Identify Your Level of Certainty

Examine the Underlying Assumptions

Be Alert for Personal Bias

Consider Other Possible Interpretations

Consider This: Standards of Proof Vary for Different Audiences and Cultural Settings

Avoid Errors in Reasoning

Faulty Generalization

Faulty Causal Reasoning

Faulty Statistical Reasoning

Acknowledge the Limits of Research

Obstacles to Validity and Reliability

Flaws in Research Studies

Measurement Errors

Deceptive Reporting

Guidelines for Evaluating and Interpreting Information

Checklist: The Research Process


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

11. Summarizing and Abstracting Information

Purpose of Summaries

Guidelines for Summarizing Information

What Users Expect from a Summary

Case Study: Creating a Summary

Sample Documents: Article to Be Summarized; Summary of Article; Compressed Summary

Forms of Summarized Information

Closing Summary

Informative Abstract (“Summary”)

Descriptive Abstract (“Abstract”)

Executive Abstract

Sample Documents: Descriptive Abstract; Executive Abstract

Ethical Considerations in Summarizing Information

Checklist for Usability of Summaries

On the Job…The Importance of Summaries


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

Part III


12. Organizing for Users

Partitioning and Classifying


A Document’s Basic Shape

The Formal Outline

Sample Document: A Formal Outline

Organizing for Cross-Cultural Audiences

The Report Design Worksheet


Sample Document: Report Design Worksheet


The Support Paragraph

The Topic Sentence

Paragraph Unity

Paragraph Coherence

Paragraph Length


Spatial Sequence

Chronological Sequence

Effect-to-Cause Sequence

Cause-to-Effect Sequence

Emphatic Sequence

Problem-Causes-Solution Sequence

Comparison-Contrast Sequence


Creating an Overview


Collaborative Project

13. Editing for Readable Style

Editing for Clarity

Avoid Ambiguous Pronoun References

Avoid Ambiguous Modifiers

Unstack Modifying Nouns

Arrange Word Order for Coherence and Emphasis

Use Active Voice Whenever Possible

Use Passive Voice Selectively

Avoid Overstuffed Sentences

Editing for Conciseness

Avoid Wordy Phrases

Eliminate Redundancy

Avoid Needless Repetition

Avoid There Sentence Openers

Avoid Some It Sentence Openers

Delete Needless Prefaces

Avoid Weak Verbs

Avoid Excessive Prepositions

Fight Noun Addiction

Make Negatives Positive

Clean Out Clutter Words

Delete Needless Qualifiers

Editing for Fluency

Combine Related Ideas

Vary Sentence Construction and Length

Use Short Sentences for Special Emphasis

Finding the Exact Words

Prefer Simple and Familiar Wording

Avoid Useless Jargon

Use Acronyms Selectively

Avoid Triteness

Avoid Misleading Euphemisms

Avoid Overstatement

Avoid Imprecise Wording

Be Specific and Concrete

Adjusting Your Tone

Guidelines for Deciding about Tone

Consider Using an Occasional Contraction

Address Readers Directly

Use I and We When Appropriate

Prefer the Active Voice

Emphasize the Positive

Avoid an Overly Informal Tone

Avoid Personal Bias

Avoid Sexist Usage

Guidelines for Nonsexist Usage

Avoid Offensive Usage of All Types

Guidelines for Inoffensive Usage

Considering the Cultural Context

Legal and Ethical Implications of Word Choice

Using Automated Editing Tools Effectively

Checklist: Style

On the Job…Revising a Document


Collaborative Project

14. Designing Visual Information

Why Visuals Are Important

When to Use Visuals

What Types of Visuals to Consider

How to Select Visuals for Your Purpose and Audience



Bar Graphs

Line Graphs

Guidelines for Displaying a Line Graph


Pie Charts

Guidelines for Displaying a Pie Chart

Organization Charts


Tree Charts

Gantt and PERT Charts


Graphic Illustrations




Guidelines for Using Photographs

Computer Graphics

Using the Software

Using Symbols and Icons

Using Visualization

Using Color

Guidelines for Incorporating Color

How to Avoid “Visual Noise”

Visuals and Ethics

Present the Real Picture

Present the Complete Picture

Don’t Mistake Distortion for Emphasis

Guidelines for Fitting Visuals with Text

Cultural Considerations

Checklist: Usability of Visuals


Collaborative Project

15. Designing Pages and Documents

Page Design in Workplace Documents

How Page Design Transforms a Document

Sample Documents: Ineffective and Effective Page Design

Design Skills Needed in Today's Workplace

Desktop Publishing

Electronic Publishing

Using Style sheets and Company Style guides

Creating a Usable Design

Shaping the Page

Using Typography Effectively

Guidelines for Highlighting for Emphasis

Using Headings for Access and Orientation

Guidelines for Using Headings

Audience Considerations in Page Design

Designing On-Screen Documents

Web Pages

Online Help

Adobe Acrobat™ and PDF Files

CDs and Other Media

Checklist: Usability of Page Design


Collaborative Project


16. Memo Reports and Electronic Correspondence

Documents in Hard-Copy vs. Digital Format

Types of Memo Reports

Informational vs. Analytical Reports

Formal vs. Informal Reports

Purpose of Memo Reports

Elements of a Usable Memo

Interpersonal Considerations in Writing a Memo

Direct vs. Indirect Organizing Patterns

Informational Reports in Memo Form

Progress Reports

SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: Brief Progress Report; Long-term Progress Report

Periodic Activity Reports

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Periodic Activity Report

Meeting Minutes

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Meeting Minutes

Analytical Reports in Memo Form

Feasibility Reports

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Feasibility Analysis

Recommendation Reports

Case Study: A Problem-Solving Recommendation

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Recommendation Memo

Justification Reports

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Justification Report

Checklist for Usability of Memo Reports

Electronic Mail

Email Benefits

Email Copyright Issues

Email Privacy Issues

Guidelines for Using Electronic Mail

Guidelines for Choosing Email vs. Paper, Telephone, or Fax

Checklist: Usability of Email

Instant Messaging

Corporate Blogs and Wikis

Internal Blogs

External Blogs

RSS Feeds

Ethical, Legal, and Privacy Issues


Collaborative Project

17. Workplace Letters

Elements of Usable Letters

Basic Parts of Letters

Sample DOCUMENT: Standard Design for a Workplace Letter: Proposal and Estimate for Home Repairs

Specialized Parts of Letters

Design Features

Interpersonal Considerations in Workplace Letters

Conveying Bad or Unwelcome News

Guidelines for Conveying Bad News

Inquiry Letters

Guidelines for Writing an Inquiry

Requesting Information

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: An Unsolicited Inquiry

Requesting an Interview

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Request for an Interview

Telephone and Email Inquiries

Claim Letters

Routine Claims

Guidelines for Routine Claim Letters

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Routine Claim Letter

Arguable Claims

Guidelines for Arguable Claim Letters

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: An Arguable Claim Letter

Adjustment Letters

Granting Adjustments

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Letter Granting an Adjustment

Refusing Adjustments

Guidelines for Refusals

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Letter Refusing an Adjustment

Checklist: Usability of Letters


Collaborative Project

18. Employment Correspondence

Employment Outlook in the Twenty-First Century

Prospecting for Jobs

Search Online

Preparing Your Résumé

Typical Components of a Resume

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Request for References

Case: Resumes for Different Situations: Composing a Reverse Chronological Resume; Composing a Function Resume; Composing a Modified Functional Resume

SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: Reverse Chronological Resume; Functional Resume; Resume with Combined Organization

Guidelines for Resumes

Preparing Your Job Application Letter

The Solicited Application Letter

SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: A Solicited Job Application Letter; A Solicited Internship Application Letter

The Unsolicited Application Letter

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: An Unsolicited Application Letter

Guidelines for Job Application Letters

Consider This: How Applicants Are Screened for Personal Qualities

Submitting Electronic Resumes

How Scanning Works

Guidelines for Preparing a Scannable Resume

Types of Electronic Resumes

Protecting Privacy and Security When You Post a Resume Online

SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: A Computer-Scannable Resume; A Searchable Resume

Protecting Your Good Name Online

Support for the Application

Your Dossier

Your Professional Portfolio

Employment Interviews

Guidelines for Surviving a Job Interview

The Follow-Up Letter

Letters of Acceptance or Refusal

Checklist: Usability of Letters


Collaborative Project

19. Web Pages

HTML: Hypertext Markup Language

Elements of a Usable Web Site

Guidelines for Creating a Web Site

Laying Out Your Pages

Checking, Testing, and Monitoring Your Site

Privacy Issues in Online Communication

Checklist: Usability of Web Sites


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

20. Technical Definitions

Purpose of Technical Definitions

Levels of Detail in a Definition

Parenthetical Definition

Sentence Definition

Expanded Definition

Sample DOCUMENT: An Expanded Definition

Expansion Methods


History and Background


Operating Principle

Analysis of Parts


Comparison and Contrast

Required Materials or Conditions


Situations Requiring Definitions

Case: Anexpanded definition for semitechnical readers: Solenoid

Case: An expanded definition for Nontechnical readers: Nanotechnology

Placement of Definitions

Guidelines for Defining Clearly and Precisely

Checklist: Usability of Definitions


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: Expanded Definition in a Technical Brochure; Expanded Definition in a FAQ List Format; Definition for Laypersons in a Two-Column Brochure

21. Technical Descriptions and Specifications

Technical Descriptions and Specifications

Purposes and Types of Technical Description

Objectivity in Technical Description

SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: A Product Description; A Process Description

Elements of a Usable Description

Clear and Limiting Title

Appropriate Level of Detail and Technicality


Clearest Descriptive Sequence

An Outline and Model for Product Description

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Product Description: The Standard Stethoscope

Description and Function of Parts

Summary and Operating Description

Case: A Situation Requiring Product Description

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Mechanism Description for a Nontechnical Audience

An Outline for Process Description

Case: A Situation Requiring Process Description

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Process Description for a Nontechnical Audience


sample Documents: Specifications for a Building Project

Technical Marketing Literature

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Technical brochure: Marvin™ Windows

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Technical Marketing Web Page: Marvin™ Double Hung Window

Checklist: Usability of Technical Descriptions


Collaborative Project

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Technical Marketing Fact Sheet

22. Instructions and Procedures

Purpose of Instructional Documents

Formats for Instructional Documents

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Foldout Instructional Brochure

Faulty Instructions and Legal Liability

Elements of Usable Instruction

Clear and Limiting Title

Informed Content


Appropriate Level of Detail and Technicality

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Appropriate Instructions

Logically Ordered Steps

Notes and Hazard Notices


Effective Design

Guidelines for Designing Instructions

An Outline and Model for Instructions


SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Instructions for using the OCLC Terminal

Body: Required Steps


Case: A Situation Requiring Instructions

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Set of Instructions

Online Documentation

Testing the Usability of Your Document

How Usability Testing Is Done

Qualitative Testing

Quantitative Testing

Usability Testing in the Classroom

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Basic Usability Survey


SAMPLE DOCUMENTS: A Standard Operating Procedure; A Safety Procedure

Checklist: Usability of Instructions


Collaborative Project

Service-Learning Project

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Instructions for Leak Testing an Outdoor Grille

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Procedure for Caring for Contact Lenses

23. Proposals

How Proposals and Reports Differ in Purpose

The Proposal Audience

The Proposal Process

Case: Submitting a Competitive Proposal

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Request for Proposal

Proposal Types

Planning Proposal

Case: Developing a Planning Proposal

Research Proposal

Case: Developing a Research Proposal

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Research Proposal

Sales Proposal

Case: Developing a Sales Proposal


Elements of a Persuasive Proposal

A Forecasting Title

Clear Understanding of the Audience’s Needs

A Clear Focus on Benefits

Honest and Supportable Claims

Appropriate Detail


Convincing Language


Accessible Page Design

Supplements Tailored for a Diverse Audience

Proper Citation of Sources and Contributors

An Outline and Model for Proposals


SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Introduction to a Proposal for Reducing Noise in a College Library


SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Body of a Proposal for Reducing Noise in a College Library


Case: A Situation Requiring a Proposal

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Funding Proposal

Checklist: Usability of Proposals


Service-Learning Project

24. Formal Analytical Reports

Purpose of Analysis

Typical Analytical Problems

Causal Analysis: “Why Does X Happen?”

Comparative Analysis: “Is X or Y Better for Our Purpose?”

Feasibility Analysis: “Is This a Good Idea?”

Combining Types of Analysis

Elements of a Usable Analysis

Clearly Identified Problem or Goal

Adequate but Not Excessive Data

Accurate and Balanced Data

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Summary Description of a Feasibility Study

Fully Interpreted Data

Subordination of Personal Bias

Appropriate Visuals

Valid Conclusions and Recommendations


An outline and Model for Analytical Reports


SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Introduction to a Causal Analysis


SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Data Section of a Causal Analysis


SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Conclusion to a Causal Analysis


Case: A Situation Requiring an Analytical Report

Sample Document: An Analytical Report

Guidelines for Reasoning through an Analytical Problem

Checklist: Usability of Analytical Reports


Collaborative Project

25. Front Matter and End Matter In Long Documents


Title Page

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Title Page for a Formal Report

Letter of Transmittal

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Letter of Transmittal for a Formal Report

Table of Contents

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Table of Contents for a Formal Report

List of Tables and Figures

Abstract or Executive Summary





26. Oral Presentations

Advantages and Drawbacks of Oral Reports

Avoiding Presentation Pitfalls

Planning Your Presentation

Analyze Your Listeners

Checklist: Analyzing Your Listeners and Purpose

Work from an Explicit Purpose Statement

Analyze Your Speaking Situation

Select a Delivery Method

Preparing Your Presentation

Research Your Topic

Aim for Simplicity and Conciseness

Anticipate Audience Questions

Outline Your Presentation

Sample document: A Presentation Outline

Plan Your Visuals

Prepare Your Visuals

Guidelines for Readable Visuals

Guidelines for Understandable Visuals

Consider the Available Technology

Use PowerPoint ® and Other Software Wisely

Case: PowerPoint and the Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

Guidelines for Using Presentation Software

Rehearse Your Delivery

Delivering Your Presentation

Cultivate the Human Landscape

Keep Your Listeners Oriented

Manage Your Visuals

Guidelines for Presenting Visuals

Manage Your Presentation Style

Manage Your Speaking Situation

Guidelines for Managing Listener Questions

Consider This: Cross-Cultural Audiences May Have Specific Expectations



Taking Notes

Quoting the Work of Others

Paraphrasing the Work of Others

What You Should Document

How You Should Document

MLA Documentation Style

MLA Parenthetical References

MLA Works Cited Entries

Index to Sample MLA Works Cited Entries


APA Documentation Style

APA Parenthetical References

APA Reference List Entries

Index to Sample APA Reference Entries


CSE and Other Numbered Documentation Styles

CSE Numbered Citations

Index to Sample CSE Entries


Common Sentence Errors

Effective Punctuation



Critical Thinking in the Writing Process

Case #1: An Everyday Writing Situation: The Evolution of a Short Report

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: A Final Draft Report: October Management Training Program Evaluation and Recommendations

Case #2: Preparing a Personal Statement in an Internship or Fellowship Application

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Early Draft: Personal Statement for a Marine Biology Internship

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Final Draft: Personal Statement for a Marine Biology Internship

Case #3: Documents for the Course Project: A Sequence Culminating in the Final Report

The Project Documents

The Proposal Stage

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Proposal: Studying Ways to Improve Quality Control at Megacrunch

The Progress Report Stage

SAMPLE DOCUMENT: Progress Report

The Final Report Stage


Additional Documents: A Personal Statement to Accompany an Application to Medical School; A Personal Statement to Accompany an Application to Law School

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