Technology Meets Research - 60 Years Of Cern Technology: Selected Highlights

Technology Meets Research - 60 Years Of Cern Technology: Selected Highlights


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Technology Meets Research - 60 Years Of Cern Technology: Selected Highlights by Thomas Taylor

'Big' science and advanced technology are known to cross-fertilize. This book emphasizes the interplay between particle physics and technology at CERN that has led to breakthroughs in both research and technology over the laboratory's first 60 years. The innovations, often the work of individuals or by small teams, are illustrated with highlights describing selected technologies from the domains of accelerators and detectors. The book also presents the framework and conditions prevailing at CERN that enabled spectacular advances in technology and contributed to propel the European organization into the league of leading research laboratories in the world.While the book is specifically aimed at providing information for the technically interested general public, more expert readers may also appreciate the broad variety of subjects presented. Ample references are given for those who wish to further explore a given topic.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789814749138
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date: 06/14/2017
Series: Advanced Series On Directions In High Energy Physics Series , #27
Pages: 484
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

The translator of this work, Thomas Taylor, is known for his authoritative translations of the Platonists; he was practically the sole source of Neo-Platonic thought in the transcendentalist movement of New England. Iamblichus' Life of Pythagoras was a constant source of inspiration to the transcendentalists and a major influence on their writings throughout the Nineteenth Century. Taylor's work was enthusiastically acclaimed by Emerson, who referred to the translator as "a Greek born out of his time, and dropped on the ridicule of a blind and frivolous age."

Table of Contents

Foreword Fabiola Gianotti xi

Preface by the Editors xiii

List of Authors xv

Acronyms xvii

Boxes with Supplementary Information xxiii

Chapter 1 Introduction Christine Sutton Horst Wenninger 1

1.1 CERN's First 30 Years: From Fixed Targets to the First Colliders 5

1.2 CERN's Second 30 Years: The LEP and LHC Story 8

Chapter 2 The 600 MeV Synchrocyclotron (SC): Laying the Foundation Brian Allardyce Giuseppe Fidecaro 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 The Rotary Capacitor: Tuning Acceleration Reinhold Hohbach Kurt Hühner 27

2.3 Discovery of the π → ev Decay: Rare and Precious Giuseppe Fidecaro 29

2.4 Measuring the Muon (g - 2): Precision with Precession Guido Petrucci 32

Chapter 3 The Proton Synchrotron (PS): At the Core of the CERN Accelerators Donald Cundy Simone Gilardoni 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Extraction: Getting the Beam to Leave the Accelerator Massimo Giovannozzi Charles Steinbach 56

3.3 Acceleration and Bunch Gymnastics Heiko Damerau Steven Hancock 61

3.4 Boosting PS Beam Intensity Karlheinz Schindl 64

3.5 Capacitive Energy Storage Replaces Flywheel Jean-Paul Burnet 68

3.6 Taking the Neutrinos by the Horns Alan Ball 71

3.7 OMEGA: Towards the Electronic Bubble Chamber Werner Beusch Emanuele Quercigh 74

3.8 ISOLDE: Targeting a New Era in Nuclear Physics Helge Ravn 77

3.9 The CERN n_TOF Facility: Catching Neutrons on the Fly Enrico Chiaveri 81

Chapter 4 The Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR): The First Hadron Collider Christian Fabjan Kurt Hübner 87

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Vacuum Pumping by Freezing Molecules Cristoforo Benvenuti 99

4.3 How to Measure Almost Nothing Cristoforo Benvenuti 101

4.4 Superconducting Magnets: Squeezing Beams to Extract More Collisions Romeo Perin 103

4.5 Cryogenics for the Superconducting High Luminosity Insertion Magnets Philippe Lebrun 107

4.6 Van der Meer Scan: Proton Beam Tomography Helmut Burkhardt 111

4.7 Roman Pots: Physics Next to the Accelerator Beam Giorgio Matthiae 112

4.8 The Gas Detector (R)evolution Fabio Sauli 115

4.9 Transition Radiation: Imaging Relativistic Particles Christian Fabjan 121

4.10 Precision Calorimetry: Honing an Essential Tool Christian Fabjan 125

4.11 The Open Axial Field Magnet: Barrier-Free Access Thomas Taylor 129

Chapter 5 The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS): A Tale of Two Lives Niels Doble Lau Gatignon Kurt Hübner Edmund Wilson 135

5.1 Introduction 135

5.2 SPS Distributed Control System: The Emergence of Local Area Networks Pier Giorgio Innocenti 150

5.3 SPS Controls: A Part of Touch-Screen History Bent Stumpe 152

5.4 The SPS Muon Beam: Energy, Intensity and Precision Niels Doble Lau Gatignon 154

5.5 Two Very Special K0 Beams: Discovery of Direct CP Violation Niels Doble Lau Gatignon 158

5.6 Liquid Krypton Calorimetry: Elucidating Nature's Subtle Asymmetries Italo Mannelli 161

5.7 Bubble Chambers at the SPS: A Technique at its Apogee Horst Wenninger 164

5.8 Polarized Targets: Pointing to New Directions Tapio Niinikoski 167

5.9 The Silicon Age: Micrometre Precision Millions of Times a Second Erik Heijne 170

Chapter 6 The CERN Antiproton Programme: Imagination and Audacity Rewarded Vinod Chohan Pierre Darriulat 179

6.1 Introduction 179

6.2 Stochastic Cooling: Technology to Compress the Beams Fritz Caspers Lars Thorndahl 191

6.3 Radio Frequency Quadrupole: Slowing Down Antimatter Werner Pirkl 195

6.4 The LEAR Ultra-Slow Beam Extraction: Trickling Antiprotons Michel Chanel Kurt Hübner 198

6.5 The UA1 Tracker: An Electronic Bubble Chamber Bernard Sadoulet 201

6.6 A Novel Particle Detector for UA2: The Power of Silicon Claus Göβling Pierre Jarron 208

6.1 Antimatter's Disappearing Act Michael Doser 211

Chapter 7 The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP): Probing the Standard Model Thomas Taylor Daniel Treille 217

7.1 Introduction 217

7.2 Concrete Stuffing for the LEP Magnets Jean-Pierre Gourber 232

7.3 Pumping LEP: Sticky Tape for Molecules Cristoforo Benvenuti 234

7.4 Superconducting Skin Boosts Accelerator Cavity Performance Cristoforo Benvenuti 238

7.5 Measuring the (Accelerator) World Michel Mayoud 242

7.6 Precise Energy Measurement: Heed the Moon Albert Hofmann 244

7.7 The LEP Silicon Vertex Detectors: Right on Target Hans Dijkstra 246

7.8 DELPHI RICH: The Luminous Footprint of Particles Paul Baillon 249

7.9 BGO for the L3 Experiment: Betting on Precision Paul Lecoq 253

7.10 The Magnetic Cavern of L3 Alain Hervé 256

Chapter 8 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC): The Energy Frontier Giorgio Brianti Peter Jenni 263

8.1 Introduction 263

8.2 Superconducting Magnets: Powerful, Precise, Plentiful Romeo Perin 278

8.3 LHC Cryogenics: Quantum Fluids at Work Philippe Lebrun 283

8.4 Current Leads: High Temperature Superconductors to the Fore Amalia Ballarino 287

8.5 A Pumping Vacuum Chamber: Ultimate Simplicity Cristoforo Benvenuti 290

8.6 Vertex Detectors at LHC: In Search of Beauty Leonardo Rossi 292

8.7 Large Silicon Trackers: Fast, Precise, Efficient Luigi Rolandi 296

8.8 Two Approaches to High Resolution Electromagnetic Calorimetry Tejinder Virdee 300

8.9 Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber: Chronometry of Particles Crispin Williams 306

8.10 The LHCb RICH: The Lord of the Cherenkov Rings Carmelo D'Ambrosia Olav Ullaland 310

8.11 Signal Processing: Taming the LHC Data Avalanche Philippe Farthouat 314

8.12 Giant Magnets for Giant Detectors Alain Hervé Peter Jenni Thomas Taylor 318

Chapter 9 Data Handling and Communication Frédéric Hemmer Pier Giorgio Innocenti 327

9.1 Introduction 327

9.2 Computing Clusters and Data Storage: The New Factory and Warehouse Les Robertson 333

9.3 Local Area Networks: Organizing Interconnection Ben Segal 340

9.4 High-Speed Worldwide Networking: Accelerating Protocols François Fluckiger 343

9.5 Detector Simulation: Events Before the Event René Brun 349

9.6 Data Analysis and Programming Environment: Distilling Information René Brun 353

9.7 World Wide Web: Global Networking François Fluckiger 357

Chapter 10 Knowledge and Technology: Sharing with Society Cristoforo Benvenuti Christine Sutton Horst Wenninger 365

10.1 A Core Mission of CERN 365

10.2 Medical Accelerators: A Tool for Tumour Therapy Kurt Hübner 374

10.3 Medipix: The Image is the Message Michael Campbell 377

10.4 Crystal Clear: From Higgs to PET Paul Lecoq 379

10.5 Solar Collectors: When Nothing is Better Cristoforo Benvenuti 382

10.6 The TARC Experiment at CERN: Modern Alchemy Jean-Pierre Revol 385

10.7 A CLOUD Chamber with a Silvery Lining Jasper Kirkby 387

Chapter 11 Managing the Laboratory and Large Projects Philippe Lebrun Thomas Taylor 393

11.1 The CERN Approach: Change and Continuity 393

11.2 Building Large Accelerators with Industry: Lessons from the LHC Philippe Lebrun 405

11.3 Building LHC Detectors: Collaborations that Span the World Markus Nordberg Achille Petrilli Thomas Taylor 417

Chapter 12 R&D for the Future Kurt Hübner Daniel Treille Daniel Schulte 423

12.1 The LHC and Beyond 423

12.2 Accelerator Magnets with Ever-Higher Fields Lucio Rossi 432

12.3 Teasing Performance from Superconductors Old and New Amalia Ballarino 434

12.4 RF Power for CLIC: Acceleration by Deceleration Igor Syratchev 439

12.5 The Next Energy Frontier e+e- Collider: Innovation in Detectors Lucie Linssen 443

12.6 Hadron Collider Detectors: A Bright and Energetic Future Werner Riegler 450

Concluding Remarks by the Editorial Team 459

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