Since the very beginning, temporary agency work has been an accepted feature in the United States’ labour market. In the European Union, however, it took more than thirty years to agree on European-level legislation in this area. The European Directive 2008/104/EC on Temporary Agency Work was promulgated on 19 November 2008. Implementation was due by 5 December 2011. The directive left many options for Member States, such as regarding the fundamental issue of equal treatment between the temporary agency worker and a comparable worker in the user enterprise. Furthermore, Member States had to review restrictions or prohibitions on the use of temporary agency work in order to comply with the directive. This book provides in-depth insight into the transposition of Directive 2008/104/EC in national legislation, collective agreements, and practices throughout the European Union. A comparison with the regulation of temporary agency work in the United States gives perspective to the analysis and allows for an assessment of the level of protection afforded in this sector of the labour market both in the EU and in the US.