Testing and Evaluation of Infrared Imaging Systems / Edition 2

Testing and Evaluation of Infrared Imaging Systems / Edition 2

by Gerald C. Holst
ISBN-10:
0819429414
ISBN-13:
9780819429414
Pub. Date:
07/28/1998
Publisher:
SPIE Press

Hardcover

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Overview

Testing and Evaluation of Infrared Imaging Systems / Edition 2

In its first update in 10 years, this text describes the characterization of all modern infrared imaging systems.

In this new edition:

• The concept of target/background delta-T with its dependence on background temperature is clarified.
• Description of the three-dimensional noise model has been expanded with test methods plainly addressed.
• Major updates were made to delineate Scanning and staring array methodologies in MTF measurement, and advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.
• Although MRT test procedures have not changed very much over the years, observer variability is now well-documented.
• All figures and graphs have been redrawn.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780819429414
Publisher: SPIE Press
Publication date: 07/28/1998
Series: Press Monographs
Edition description: 2ND
Pages: 417
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

1.Introduction
1.1.Infrared Imaging Systems
1.2.Image Quality
1.2.1.Physical Measures
1.2.2.Subjective Evaluation
1.3.Test Philosophy
1.3.1.Test Plan
1.3.2.Test Equipment
1.3.3.Data Analysis
1.3.4.Documentation
1.4.Automated Testing
1.5.Field Testing
1.6.References
Exercises
2.Infrared Imaging System Operation
2.1.System Designs
2.1.1.Military Systems
2.1.2.Civilian Systems
2.1.3.System Selection
2.2.Optics and Scanner
2.2.1.Optics
2.2.2.Scanners
2.2.3.Microscan
2.3.Detectors and Detector Electronics
2.3.1.Scanning Systems
2.3.2.Staring Systems
2.4.Digitization
2.5.Image Processing
2.5.1.Gain/Level Normalization
2.5.2.Image Formatting
2.5.3.Gamma Correction
2.6.Reconstruction
2.7.Monitors
2.8.Artifact Occurrence
2.9.References
Exercises
3.Basic Concepts in IR Technology
3.1.Radiometry
3.1.1.Extended Source, Direct View
3.1.2.Extended Source in Collimator
3.1.3.Point Source
3.2.Radiance versus Temperature
3.2.1.Planck's Blackbody Law
3.2.2.Emittance
3.2.3.Camera Formula
3.2.4.T Concept
3.3.Normalization
3.4.Spatial Frequency
3.5.References
Exercises
4.General Measuring Techniques
4.1.Blackbodies
4.2.Targets
4.2.1.Standard Emissive Targets
4.2.2.Reflective Targets
4.2.3.Target Wheels
4.2.4.Novel Emissive Targets
4.2.5.Experimental Targets
4.2.6.Passive Targets
4.2.7.Sources as Targets
4.2.8.Special Considerations
4.3.Collimators
4.4.Atmospheric Transmittance and Turbulence
4.5.Mounting Fixture
4.6.Data Acquisition
4.7.The Test Engineer
4.8.References
Exercises
5.Focus and System Resolution
5.1.Test Methodology
5.2.Focus Tests
5.2.1.Visual Method
5.2.2.Analog Video Amplitude Method
5.2.3.MTF Method
5.2.4.Edge Detection Algorithms
5.3.System Resolution
5.3.1.Definitions
5.3.2.Pixels, Datels, Disels, and Resels
5.3.3.Resolution Targets
5.4.Representative Specifications
5.5.References
Exercises
6.System Responsivity
6.1.Signal Transfer Function
6.1.1.System Response
6.1.2.Responsivity and Gain Uniformity
6.1.3.SiTF Test Procedure
6.2.Aperiodic Transfer Function & Slit Response Function
6.3.Dynamic Range and Linearity
6.4.Cool Down
6.5.Representative Specifications
6.6.References
Exercises
7.Noise
7.1.Noise Statistics
7.2.Three-Dimensional Noise Model
7.2.1.The D Operators
7.2.2.Noise Components
7.2.3.Scanning Systems
7.2.4.Staring Systems
7.2.5.NEDT, FPN, and Nonuniformity
7.2.6.Bidirectionality
7.3.Typical Noise Data
7.4.Noise Measurements
7.4.1.Full Data Set
7.4.2.Reduced Data Set
7.5.NEDT
7.6.Fixed Pattern Noise
7.7.Nonuniformity
7.8.Noise Equivalent Flux Density
7.9.Noise Power Spectral Density
7.10.Mean-Variance Technique
7.11.Representative Specifications
7.12.References
Exercises
8.Contrast, Modulation, and Phase Transfer Functions
8.1.MTF and CTF Definitions
8.2.Modulation Transfer Function
8.2.1.General Approach
8.2.2.Isoplanatism
8.2.3.Spatial Sampling
8.2.4.System Linearity
8.2.5.Test Equipment Digitization
8.2.6.Background Removal
8.2.7.Jitter
8.2.8.Noise
8.2.9.LSF Symmetry
8.2.10.Fourier Transform
8.2.11.Amplitude Normalization
8.2.12.Frequency Scaling
8.2.13.Test Configuration MTF
8.2.14.MTF Test Procedures
8.3.Phase Transfer Function
8.4.Contrast Transfer Function
8.5.References
Exercises
9.Geometric Transfer Function
9.1.Field-of-View
9.2.Geometric Distortion
9.3.Scan Nonlinearity
9.4.Boresight Alignment
9.5.Machine Vision Performance
9.5.1.Measuring Location and Counting Objects
9.5.2.Algorithm Efficiency
9.6.Representative Specifications
9.7.References
Exercises
10.Observer Interpretation of Image Quality
10.1.The Observer
10.1.1.Frequency of Seeing Response
10.1.2.Visual Angle
10.1.3.Noisy Images
10.1.4.Observer Qualification
10.2.MRT and MDT Tests
10.2.1.Subjective (Manual) Test Methodology
10.2.2.Semiautomatic Test Methodology
10.2.3.Measured Values Versus Specifications
10.3.Dynamic Sampling
10.4.Representative Specifications
10.5.Current Issues
10.6.References
Exercises
11.Automated Testing
11.1.Physical Measures
11.2.Automated MRT Test
11.2.1.NEDT/MTF Approach
11.2.2.AMRT Calibration
11.2.3.Pixels on Target
11.3.Dynamic Scene Projectors
11.4.Field Testing
11.5.References
Exercises
12.Statistical Analysis
12.1.Mean, Variance, and Repeatability
12.2.Gaussian Distribution
12.3.Precision and Bias
12.3.1.SiTF
12.3.2.Three-Dimensional Noise
12.3.3.MTF
12.3.4.MRT
12.4.Range of Values
12.5.Uncertainty Analysis
12.6.Teff Uncertainty
12.6.1.Reflectance
12.6.2.Emittance
12.6.3.Atmospheric Transmittance
12.6.4.T Uncertainty
12.7.V Uncertainty
12.8.SiTF Uncertainty
12.9.MRT Uncertainty
12.10.References
Exercises

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