The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation

The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation

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Overview

What happens to women in the aftermath of war and internal conflict? This book demonstrates that the post-war period is too late for women to transform patriarchal gender relations; the foundations for change must be built during conflict. The contributors analyze what women endure and what they construct during and after conflict, what obstacles they encounter in their search for autonomy and what bonds of solidarity they create in building peace.

Author Biography: Meredeth Turshen teaches Gender and Development, and Third World Social Policy at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University.

Author Biography: Sheila Meintjes is Senior Lecturer in Political Studies, and coordinator of the Gender Studies Program in the Graduate School of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of the Witswatersrand.

Author Biography: Anu Pillay is a gender and development practitioner and winner of South Africa MaAfrika award in 1996 for social contribution.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781842770672
Publisher: Zed Books
Publication date: 07/28/2002
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 5.43(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Meredeth Turshen teaches Gender and Development and Third World Social Policy at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University.

Sheila Meintjes is Senior Lecturer in Political Studies, and co-ordinator of the Gender Studies Programme in the Graduate School of the Humanities and Social Sciences, University of the Witswatersrand, South Africa.

Anu Pillay is a gender and development practitioner and winner of South Africa MaAfrika award in 1996 for social contribution.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgementsix
Notes on Contributorsx
Abbreviationsxiv
Part IOverviews of the Themes1
1There Is No Aftermath for Women3
Breaking Down the Category 'Women'5
Women's Wartime Gains and Potential for Post-war Transformation7
The Failure to Consolidate Wartime Gains8
The Political Economy of Violence against Women11
Myths about ldentity, Problems of Solidarity and Reconciliation13
Power and Authority in the Aftermath15
Our Vision of a Transformed Society17
2Women in Conflicts, Their Gains and Their Losses19
Social and Political Gains20
Economic Gains24
The Loss of Identity25
Loss of Bodily Integrity26
Adding to Women's Responsibilities27
Economic Losses28
Women's Loss of Leadership30
Losses in Education32
Losses in Health33
Conclusion33
3Violence against Women in the Aftermath35
An Analysis of the Experiences38
What Underlies Violence against Women?39
What Do Men Lack that Makes Them Inflict Violence on Women?43
Emerging Themes44
Conclusion44
4Problems of Identity, Solidarity and Reconciliation46
Multiple and Shifting Identities--Socially Constructed, Contextually Based47
Women Crossing Political and Social Divisions53
Truth Commissions, Tribunals and Healing in the Aftermath57
Conclusion60
5War and Post-War Shifts in Gender Relations63
How War Mobilises Women65
Military Demobilisation and Political Remobilisation69
The Long-term Effects of Wartime Changes70
Conclusion76
6Engendering Relations of State to Society in the Aftermath78
Tradition80
Sex and the State84
Women in Government86
Women in Nongovernmental Organisations87
Women in Peace Negotiations89
Demobilisation and Demilitarisation91
Reconciliation and Reparations93
Conclusion94
Part IIContemporary Experiences97
7Ambivalent Gains in South Asian Conflicts99
Kashmir: Domestic 'Accidental' Activism103
Backlash: Veiling Kashmiri Women107
The Naga People's Struggle: Women of Peace and Militant Women108
Civil War in Sri Lanka: Ambivalent Empowerment112
Interrogating Agency: Militant Women Bearing Arms114
Women in Nepal's People's War: From Invisibility to Visible Protagonist?116
Women without Men Take on New Roles117
Women Combatants Engendering the People's War118
Conclusion120
8Liberated, but Not Free: Women in Post-War Eritrea122
The Context123
Theoretical Framework and the Policy and Activist Implications125
What Do Women Fighters Say about Being Civilians?127
The National Union of Eritrean Women after the War131
The Organisation and Its Discontents132
Class and Ethnic Hierarchies133
Education134
Politics, Equal Representation and the Constitution135
Coexisting with the 'Traditional Order'136
What Kind of Organisation is the NUEW?136
Some Policy Implications137
Conclusion138
9Rape in War and Peace: Social Context, Gender, Power and Identity142
The Struggle to Combat Gender-based Violence144
Rape in War and Peace: Same Category, Different Experiences?146
War: Gender Roles and Gender Identity150
Sexual Violence in the Aftermath153
Conclusion157
10Between Love, Anger and Madness: Building Peace in Haiti159
Historical and Economic Background160
Violence against Women's Bodies163
Violent Systems--Economic and Political166
Women Fighting Back168
11Caring at the Same Time: On Feminist Politics during the NATO Bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Ethnic Cleansing of Albanians in Kosovo, 1999172
Background: The Region173
Background: The Author174
Insisting on Constructionism175
Rules for Dealing with Trauma176
Resisting the Role of Victim178
Work178
Fear in Serbia and Montenegro178
Fear in Kosova179
What We Learned180
Without Fear in Belgrade181
The Regime's Construction of Fear181
Caring at the Same Time183
12Healing And Changing: The Changing Identity of Women in the Aftermath of the Ogoni Crisis in Nigeria189
Identities and Social Action189
Healing and Changing192
The Ogoni Crisis194
The Ogoni Crisis and Violence against Women199
Crisis and the Changing Identity of Ogoni Women206
Conclusions209
13Ambivalent Maternalisms: Cursing as Public Protest in Sri Lanka210
Ritualised Cursing212
Situating Sorcery within Maternalist Politics214
Towards a Contingent Reading219
14'We Want Women to Be Given an Equal Chance': Post-Independence Rural Politics in Northern Namibia225
War and Violence in Northern Namibia227
National and Local Gender Politics after Independence230
National Discourse on Gender and Tradition232
Gender, Power and Traditional Authority in Precolonial and Colonial Ongandjera234
After Independence: Women in Traditional Authority Positions237
Postcolonial Local Discourses on Gender and Tradition238
Conclusion240
Bibliography243
Index252

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