- Pub. Date:
- Smithsonian Institution Press
On April 5, 1945, more than sixty black officers of the U.S. Army Air Forces were arrested for entering a whites-only club at Freeman Field, Indiana, to protest the rigid segretation and unequal policies under which they and all African American airmen were forced to serve. Termed a mutiny by the white commanders at the base, the incident was one of several racial conflicts during the next four years that helped convince senior officers in the newly independent Air Force that segregation was an inefficient personnel policy. Documenting the racial integration of the Air Force from the end of World War II to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Alan L. Gropman contends that the service desegregated itself not for moral or political reasons but to improve military effectiveness. He draws on a range of unpublished records to show that, while proceeding smoothly, Air Force integration initially did little to ensure fair promotion practices or to protect African Americans from off-post discrimination, especially in housing, entertainment, and education. Gropman also outlines the political motivations of President Truman's 1948 Executive Order 9981 for equal opportunity in the military and reviews controversial Kennedy administration initiatives that attempted to place the military at the forefront of civil rights reform. First published in 1977, the book now includes a new preface charting the policy changes that have dramatically increased the numbers of black officers and senior supervisors in the Air Force during the past two decades. Detailing the uneven progress of a major shift in military policy, The Air Force Integrates also illuminates the often pragmatic motivations of those who bring about fundamental social change.
|Publisher:||Smithsonian Institution Press|
|Series:||History of Aviation Series|
|Product dimensions:||6.33(w) x 9.44(h) x 0.97(d)|
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Preface Part 2 1. Flying on Clipped Wings Chapter 3 Interwar Black Personnel Policy Chapter 4 World War II Personnel Policy Chapter 5 The Tuskegee Airmen Chapter 6 The 477th Bombardment Group (M) (Colored) Chapter 7 The Freeman Field Mutiny Chapter 8 The McCloy Committee Recommendations Part 9 2. Marking Time Chapter 10 The Army Studies the Postwar Role of Black Troops Chapter 11 The First Air Force Report Chapter 12 Summary Report for General Arnold Chapter 13 The Gillem Board Recommendations Chapter 14 Race Violence Chapter 15 The MacDill Riot Chapter 16 Air Force Blacks in the Postwar Period Chapter 17 Ben Davis's Air Force Part 18 3. "Unbunching" Chapter 19 The Air Force Shifts Policy Chapter 20 Political Pressure and the Election of 1948 Chapter 21 Air Force Integration Chapter 22 Changing Military Attitudes Part 23 4. Benign Neglect Chapter 24 The Korean War Chapter 25 Eisenhower and Civil Rights Chapter 26 Little Rock Air Force Base Chapter 27 Air Force Off-Base Descrimination Chapter 28 The Problem in the North Part 29 5. The Kennedy Era Chapter 30 The Gesell Committee Chapter 31 Reaction to the Gesell Report Chapter 32 Air Force Opposition Chapter 33 Air Force Equal Opportunity Efforts Chapter 34 Passage of the Civil Rights Act Chapter 35 The Air Force Marks Time Part 36 Epilogue Chapter 37 Positive Programs between 1964 and 1971 Chapter 38 The Travis Riot Part 39 Appendix: Statistics