The Arabic Influence on Northern Berber

The Arabic Influence on Northern Berber

by Maarten Kossmann

Hardcover(Bilingual)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789004253087
Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 08/16/2013
Series: Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics , #67
Edition description: Bilingual
Pages: 462
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.50(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Maarten Kossmann, Ph.D. (1994), Leiden, teaches African Linguistics at Leiden University. He has published extensively on descriptive and historical linguistics of Berber, including Grammaire du parler berbère de Figuig (1997), Essai sur la phonologie du proto-berbère (1999) and A Grammar of Ayer Tuareg (2011).

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xi

1 Introduction 1

2 Berber and Arabic 13

2.1 The Afroasiatic Heritage 13

2.2 Berber Classification 16

2.3 Maghribian Arabic and the Arabicization of Northern Africa 26

2.4 Sociolinguistics of Berber-Arabic Contact 29

2.5 Diglossia and the Arabic Influence on Berber 45

2.6 The Dating of Arabic-Based Berber Innovations 45

3 Berber in Contact: The Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Periods 51

3.1 Proto-Berber 51

3.2 Pre-Roman Loans in Berber 56

3.3 Latin Loans in Berber 62

3.4 Early Islamic Terminology 76

4 Lexicon 87

4.1 Introduction 87

4.1.1 Core Borrowings vs. Cultural Borrowings 88

4.1.2 Additive Borrowing 89

4.1.3 Substitutive Borrowing 94

4.1.4 Diglossic Insertion 94

4.2 Quantitative Approaches 97

4.3 Text Frequency of Arabic Borrowings 98

4.4 Borrowing Frequency in the Lexicon: The LWT Sample 101

4.5 Borrowing Frequency in the Lexicon: Core Vocabulary 104

4.5.1 Borrowing Lists of Basic Vocabulary 105

4.5.2 Borrowing Rates in a Number of Standard Lists 107

4.5.3 Borrowing in the Leipzig-Jakarta List: Quantitative Results 108

4.5.4 Borrowing in the Leipzig-Jakarta List: Detailed Lexical Study 115

4.6 Borrowings in Core Vocabulary: A Sample Survey in Nouns 126

4.6.1 Body Parts 126

4.6.2 Natural Phenomena 129

4.6.3 Insects and other Small Non-Vertebrates 130

4.6.4 Metals 132

4.6.5 Cultivated Plants 135

4.6.6 Domestic Animals 148

4.7 Verbs 158

4.7.1 Verbs in Basic Word Lists 159

4.7.2 Verbs according to Activity Types and Contexts 160

4.7.3 Verbs of the Household Context 160

4.7.4 Verbs of Agriculture 162

4.7.5 Verbs of the Market Context 162

4.7.6 Movement Verbs 163

4.7.7 Verbs of Cognition and Emotion 164

4.7.8 Transitive Actions with (Normally) Inanimate Objects 165

5 Phonology 169

5.1 Phonological Systems of Berber and Arabic 169

5.2 The Earliest Stratum of Loanwords 176

5.3 Later Loanwords 177

5.3.1 Arabic Loans and Berber-internal Innovations 178

5.3.2 The Integration of Foreign Phonemes 183

5.3.2.1 The Fate of s and ss 184

5.3.2.2 The Fate of d and t and Their Long Counterparts 186

5.3.2.3 The Fate of Arabic q 189

5.3.2.4 The Fate of Arabic x, h and ε 196

5.3.2.5 Some Rare Berber Consonants Strengthened by Arabic 196

5.4 The Use of Arabic Sounds in Non-Arabic Words 199

6 Nominal Morphology 203

6.1 General Overview of the Two Systems 203

6.2 Integrated Borrowings 207

6.2.1 Non-Integrated Borrowings: General Features 208

6.2.2 Paradigmatic Gender Relationship in Non-Integrated Borrowings 215

6.3 Integrated Borrowings with Retention of the Arabic Article 223

6.4 Non-Integrated Borrowings Lacking the Arabic Article 226

6.5 The Distribution of Integrated and Non-Integrated Borrowings over the Lexicon 230

6.6 Comparing Berber Morphology and Non-Integrated Morphology 234

7 Verbal Morphology 237

7.1 General Morphological Facts 237

7.2 Arabic Derived Forms in Berber 240

7.3 The Insertion of Arabic Verb Shapes into Berber Morphology 243

7.3.1 The Treatment of Verbs without a Plain Vowel in Arabic 244

7.3.1.1 CCC Verbs and Longer Stems 244

7.3.1.2 C1C2C2 Verbs 246

7.3.1.3 Arabic Aspectual Apophony in Borrowed Arabic Verbs without a Plain Vowel 250

7.3.2 The Integration of Arabic Verbs with a Final Vowel 253

7.3.2.1 First Stem Verbs 253

7.3.2.2 Other Stem Forms 257

7.3.2.3 Vowel-final Arabic Verbs and the Question of Imperfect Vocalization 259

7.3.3 Integrating Arabic Verbs with an Initial or Internal Plain Vowel 261

7.3.3.1 Verbs with Initial ?a 261

7.3.3.2 Verbs with an Internal Vowel, Excepting CVC Verbs 262

7.3.3.3 CVC Verbs 265

7.4 Taking over Arabic Inflection 270

7.5 Labile Valency in Borrowed Verbs 272

7.6 Stative Verbs and Adjectives 275

8 Borrowing of Morphological Categories 279

8.1 Adjectives 279

8.2 Collective Nouns versus Unity Nouns 282

8.3 Arabic Participles 284

8.4 Diminutives 286

8.5 Adjectival Grading 287

9 Other Categories: Pronouns and Quantifiers 291

9.1 Personal Pronouns 291

9.1.1 Arabic Pronominal Forms with Borrowed Particles 292

9.1.2 Arabic Pronouns Bound to Borrowed Verbs 296

9.1.3 Arabic Independent Pronouns after the Presentative Particle ha 296

9.1.4 Arabic Reciprocal Pronouns 296

9.2 Interrogatives 297

9.2.1 Interrogatives 'Who' and 'What' 297

9.2.2 Adverbial Interrogatives 302

9.2.3 'Which' 304

9.2.4 Yes/No Questions 305

9.3 Numerals 306

9.3.1 Cardinal Numbers 306

9.3.2 Fractions 311

9.3.3 Ordinal Numbers 312

9.4 Universal Quantifiers 312

10 Syntax: Simple Clause 321

10.1 Deixis 321

10.2 Negation 324

10.2.1 Verbal Negation 325

10.2.1.1 The Use of Arabic Pre-Verbal Negators in Berber 329

10.2.1.2 The Second Part of the Negation 332

10.2.2 Negation of Non-Verbal Predicates 335

11 Syntax: Complex Sentences 337

11.1 Coordination 337

11.1.1 NP Coordination 338

11.1.2 Clause Coordination 339

11.1.2.1 Borrowing of the Arabic Conjunction w˜u 340

11.1.2.2 Clause Coordination by Means of d 342

11.1.2.3 d as a Clause Coordinator only before NPs 343

11.1.3 Conjunction of Subordinate Clauses 346

11.1.4 Conclusions on Coordination 346

11.1.5 Disjunction 348

11.1.6 Adversative Conjunctions 350

11.1.7 General Assessment on Types of Coordination 351

11.2 Subordinating Conjunctions 351

11.2.1 The System of Temporal and Conditional Subordination 352

11.2.2 The Impact of Arabic 362

12 Syntax: Relative Clauses 369

12.1 General Overview of the Systems 369

12.2 The Difference between Relative Constructions with Definite Heads and Those with an Indefinite Head 371

12.3 The Use of Resumptive Pronouns in Non-Paratactic RCs 374

12.4 The Use of Special Elements Introducing RCs 383

12.4.1 Pronominal Elements as RC Markers 384

12.4.2 The Specialisation of One Specific Deictic Clitic to the Head for Signalling the Following RC 392

12.4.3 The Extension of Interrogative Markers to RC Contexts and other Pronominal Solutions 396

12.4.4 The Introduction of a Dedicated Relative Marker Through Grammaticalization or Otherwise 397

12.5 Conclusions 401

13 Conclusions 409

13.1 General Characteristics: Phonology 409

13.2 General Characteristics: Morphology 410

13.3 General Characteristics: Syntax 416

13.4 General Characteristics: Lexicon 417

13.5 Comparison of Borrowing in Different Berber Varieties 418

13.6 A Characterization of Arabic Grammatical Borrowing in Berber 422

13.7 Arabic Influence on Berber and the Typology of Contact-Induced Change 427

13.8 Arabic Borrowing in Berber and Language Mixing 431

References 433

Index 453

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