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SAGE Publications
The Art of Policymaking: Tools, Techniques and Processes in the Modern Executive Branch / Edition 2

The Art of Policymaking: Tools, Techniques and Processes in the Modern Executive Branch / Edition 2

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781483385518
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 01/08/2016
Edition description: Second Edition
Pages: 312
Sales rank: 723,666
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

List of Boxes xiii

Acronyms xv

Preface xviii

About the Authors xxii

Chapter 1 Why the Policymaking Process Matters 1

Objective 1

Situating the Tools, Techniques, and Processes in the Existing Literature 6

Promoting Presidential Leadership and Management Through the Policymaking Process 11

The Importance of Procedural Legitimacy in Building Policy Support 15

Conclusion 21

Key Terms Review 22

Questions 22

Part I The Policymakers

Chapter 2 The White House Policy Councils 23

The Policy Councils and the Structure of the Executive Branch 23

How the Policy Councils Operate and Why They Are Important 27

The White House Policy Councils 31

National Security Council 31

National Economic Council 35

Domestic Policy Council 39

The Bush Administration and the NEC and DPC 41

The Obama Administration and the NEC and DPC 42

Key Agencies Within the Executive Office of the President 43

Council on Environmental Quality 44

Council of Economic Advisers 44

Office of National Drug Control Policy 45

Office of Science and Technology Policy 46

Conclusion 46

Key Terms 47

Review Questions 47

Chapter 3 The White House Staff 48

Working on the White House Staff 48

Other Key Players in the White House 50

Chief of Staff 50

Office of Legislative Affairs 51

Office of Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs 53

Office of Political Affairs 55

Interaction With the Media 56

Office of Communications, the Speech Writing Office, and the Press Office 56

Office of Cabinet Affairs 58

White House Gatekeepers 59

Office of Scheduling and Oval Office Operations 59

Staff Secretary 60

White House Counsel 61

Conclusion 62

Key Terms 63

Review Questions 63

Chapter 4 Agencies and Policy Implementation 64

Executive Agencies and Departments and Executive Branch Policymaking 64

The Role of Agencies 65

Cabinet-Level Agencies 65

Non-Cabinet-Level Executive Agencies 66

Independent Agencies, Departments, and Bureaus 68

Implementing Policy Decisions 70

Executive Orders and Other Executive Actions 71

Submitting Legislation 72

Regulations and the Rule-Making Process 75

Conclusion 80

Key Terms 80

Review Questions 81

Chapter 5 Policy Management 82

Policy Management and Procedural Legitimacy 82

Models of Policy Management 83

Policy Czars and War Rooms 90

Conclusion 90

Key Terms 91

Review Questions 91

Part II Tools of the Trade

Chapter 6 Policymaking Memoranda 92

Tools of the Trade 92

The Role of the Memorandum 93

The Decision-Making Memorandum 96

The Action-Forcing Event 96

Background 99

Discussion/Analysis 100

Recommendation 101

The Information Memorandum 102

Summary Section 103

Discussion Section 103

The Weekly Report 104

Conclusion 106

Key Terms 107

Review Questions 108

Chapter 7 The State of the Union and the Budget Process 109

Timing Your Swing: Understanding Internal Workflows in the Executive Branch 109

State of the Union 110

The Budget 111

Conclusion 114

Key Terms 114

Review Questions 114

Chapter 8 Policy Implementation Tools 115

Implementation Tools 115

Authorization Tools 115

Legislation 116

Executive Orders 116

Treaties and Legal Precedent 117

Recommending the Right Policy Tool 117

Conclusion 123

Key Terms 123

Review Questions 124

Chapter 9 Legislative clearance and coordination: Saps, LRMS, and Other Policy Acronyms 125

Legislative Clearance and Coordination 125

Legislative Responsibility in the Executive Branch 126

The Clearance Process 129

Legislative Proposals 132

Clearance of Agency Testimony and Reports on Pending Legislation 133

Statement of Administration Policy (SAP) 133

Enrolled Bills 135

Conclusion 136

Key Terms 136

Review Questions 136

Chapter 10 Polling and the Policymaking Process 137

Polling and Policymaking: Myths and Realities 137

Rebuttals to Common Criticisms 139

Polling Basics 147

Who Polls for the White House? 155

Conclusion 158

Key Terms 159

Review Questions 159

Chapter 11 Communicating and Marketing Policy 160

The Importance of Communicating and Marketing Policy 160

Speechwriting 162

Communications 165

Press Office 169

Conclusion 173

Key Terms 174

Review Questions 174

Part III Case Studies

Chapter 12 Social Policymaking: Welfare Reform During the Clinton Administration 175

Welfare Reform and the Political Process 175

The Early Phase: Decentralization, Debate, and Deadlock 177

Phase II: Action, Response, and Resolution 181

Conclusion: Making the Process Work 191

Chapter 13 Economic Policymaking I: The Clinton Economic Plan 193

The Economic Plan and the Political Process 193

Phase I: The Economic Plan and the NEC 195

Establishing the Management Role of the NEC 198

The NEC Process 199

Communicating and Marketing the Economic Plan 203

Securing Passage of the Bill 204

Conclusion and Lessons Learned 209

Chapter 14 Economic Policymaking II: The Simpson-Bowles Commission Under President Obama 211

Introduction 211

Using the Process to Overcome a Stacked Deck 213

Representative Membership 215

Outreach 217

Assigning Accountability and Putting Issues on the Table 218

The Outcome 220

Conclusions and Lessons for the Policymaking Process 221

Chapter 15 Security Policymaking I: Desert Shield and Desert Storm Under George H. W. Bush 224

Security Crises and the Political Process 224

Responding to the Crisis 226

The Initial Response 228

Containment and the Decision to Double U.S. Ground Forces 233

Conclusion 238

Chapter 16 Security Policymaking II: The Surge and Iraq War Under George W. Bush 240

Changing Policy 240

The Unpredictability of Being an Honest Broker 243

Sparking Debate and Incubating Ideas 249

Breaking Some China 250

Presenting New Ideas 252

Promoting the President's Agenda 255

Conclusion 259

Part IV Scenarios

Chapter 17 Practice Scenarios 261

Practice Scenarios 261

Scenario 1 Texting While Driving 264

Scenario 2 Ukraine Crisis 265

Scenario 3 U.S.-European Environmental Negotiations 266

Glossary 268

Index 274

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