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The Art of Seeing / Edition 6

The Art of Seeing / Edition 6

by Paul Zelanski, Mary Pat Fisher


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The Art of Seeing, now in its sixth edition, is an Art Appreciation textbook written from an artist's point of view. It presents a wide range of images in different media by women and men across many cultures. Written in very accessible language, it includes:

  • Artists' own words about their work, giving students insight into art from the artists' point of view. Topics include Georgia O'Keeffe on "Abstraction," Leonardo da Vinci on "Chiaroscuro," and Josef Albers on "Seeing Colors."
  • Art Issues boxes explore areas of controversy in the contemporary art scene.
  • The World Seen boxes examine an art form that has been highly developed in a particular time and place, such as the brush and ink paintings of Sung China and the precious metalwork of Tsarist Russia.
  • 70 new color images
  • Updated coverage of contemporary trends such as installation art, video, and performance art
  • Enhanced multicultural coverage with new content on contemporary Vietnamese, Indian, Chinese, Native American, and African art
  • Three new Art Issues boxes: "Preserving Ephemeral Materials," "Looting of Art Treasures," and "The Camera Obscura: A Trade Secret?"
  • New The World Seen box: "The Hidden Temples of Angkor"
  • Improved design and layout create an extremely user-friendly text

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780131175174
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 07/09/2004
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 560
Product dimensions: 10.80(w) x 8.30(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents


1. Understanding Art.

The Creative Impulse. BOX: Maria Lewis on Suffering and Creativity. Content. Political Content. Power and Propaganda. Spiritual Purposes. Inner Experiences. BOX: Vincent van Gogh on Emotion and Intellect. Beauty in Form. Forms of Art. Two-and Three dimensional Art. Degrees of Realism. Fine and Applied Arts. BOX: Georgia O'Keefe on "Saying What I Want To." Public and Private Art. Art Issues: Censorship of Offensive Art. Critical Opinion. Art Issues: Race and Gender Criticism. Greatness in Art.

2. Visual Elements.

Line. Seeing Lines. The World Seen: Islamic Calligraphy. Implied Line. Descriptive Line. Expressive Qualities of Line. Directional Line. Shape and Form. Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Form. BOX: Henry Moore on Form and Space. Two-Dimensional Illusion of Form. Shapes. BOX: Arshile Gorky on the Intensity of Art. Space. Three-Dimensional Art in Space. Two-Dimensional Space. Scale. Spatial Illusion. Texture. Actual Texture. Simulated Texture. Value and Light. Local and Interpretive Values. Lighting. Reflections. Light as a Medium. Color. A Vocabulary of Color. Natural and Applied Color. Local, Atmospheric, and Interpretive Color. Emotional Effects of Color. Warm and Cool Colors. Advancing and Receding Colors. Color Combinations. Interaction of Color. Limited and Open Palette. BOX: Josef Albers on theComplexity of Color. Time. Actual Movement. Illusion of Movement. BOX: Auguste Rodin on the Illusion of Movement. The Captured Moment. Change Through Time.

3. Organizing Principles of Design.

Repetition. Variety. Rhythm. Balance. Compositional Unity. Emphasis. Economy. Proportion. BOX: Wassily Kandinsky on Underlying Harmony. Relationship to the Environment.


4. Drawing.

Approaches to Drawing. Dry Media. Graphite Pencil. Silverpoint. Charcoal. Chalk. Pastel Crayon. Liquid Media. Pen and Ink. BOX: The World Seen: Chinese Landscape Paintings. Brush and Ink.

5. Painting.

Approaches to Painting. Paint Media. Encaustic. Leonardo da Vinci on Chiaroscuro. Fresco. Tempera. Art Issues: Are there Limits to the Restorer's Art? Oil. Art Issues: Cleaning and Restoring Paintings. Watercolor. Gouache. Synthetics. Collage. The Word Seen: Tibetan Sand Paintings. Mosaic. Mixed Media.

6. Printmaking.

Printmaking Processes. Relief. BOX: Stephen Alcorn on the Challenge of Linocuts. Intaglio. Planographic. Stencil. Mixed Print Media.

7. Graphic Design.

The Graphic Designer and Visual Ideas. BOX: Peter Good on the Art of Graphic Design. Typography. Illustration.

8. Photography, Photocopy, and Film-Making.

Photography. BOX: Edward Weston on Photography as a Way of Seeing. Photocopy and Fax Art. Film. Television and Video. Art Issues: Mixing Art and Politics: The Films of Leni Riefenstahl.

9. Computer Graphics.

The Computer as a Drawing Medium. The Computer as a Painting Medium. The Computer in Three-Dimensional Art. Video Graphics. Virtual Reality. The Computer as a Unique Art Medium. Art in Cyberspace.


10. Sculpture.

Carving. BOX: Michelangelo Buonarroti on Marble-Quarrying. Modeling. The World Seen: Benin Ivory Carvings. Casting. BOX: Benvenuto Cellini on A Near-Disastrous Casting. Assembling. Earthworks. BOX: David Smalley on Virtual Sculpture.

11. Crafts.

Clay. The World Seen: Chinese Porcelains. BOX: Paula Winokur on Working in Clay. Metal. The World Seen: Precious Metal Work from Tsarist Russia. Wood. BOX: George Nakashima on A Feeling for Wood. Glass. Fibers. The World Seen: Persian Carpets. BOX: Norma Minkowitz on the Interface Between Art and Craft.

12. Product and Clothing Design.

Industrial Design. Clothing Design. The World Seen: Saris of India.

13. Architecture.

Function. Structure. The World Seen: Moorish Arches and Domes. BOX: Hassan Fathy on Indigenous Architectural Ingenuity. BOX: Alvar Aalto on Humanizing Architecture.

14. Designed Settings.

Interior Design. Environmental Design. The World Seen: Japanese Stone Gardens. BOX: John Lyle on Sustainable Environmental Design. Visual Aspects of the Performing Arts.


15. Historical Styles in Western Art.

The Beginnings of Western Art. Prehistoric. Aegean. Near Eastern. Egyptian. Art of Ancient Cultures. Greek. Roman. Early Christian and Byzantine. Medieval Art. Early Medieval. Romanesque. Gothic. Late Gothic. Renaissance Art. Early Renaissance in Italy. High Renaissance in Italy. Mannerism. Northern Renaissance. Art Issues: Protecting Famous Artworks. Baroque Art. Southern Baroque. Rococo. Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Art. Neoclassicism. Romanticism. Later Nineteenth-Century Art. Realism. Impressionism. Post-Impressionism. BOX: Paul Gauguin on Cross-Cultural Borrowings. Twentieth-Century Art. Expressionism. Fauvism. Cubism. Futurism. Abstract and Nonobjective Art. Dada. Surrealism. Traditional Realism. Abstract Expressionism. Post-Painterly Abstraction. Pop Art. Minimalism. Technological Art. Conceptual Art. Earthworks. Performance Art. Installations. New Realism. The Craft Object. Neoexpressionism. Post Modernism. Recognition of Women's Art. BOX: Deborah Muirhead on Art as Ancestral Exploration. Recognition of Multi-Cultural Art. Recognition of Outsider Art. Art Issues: Art as Investment.

16. Understanding Art on All Levels.

Picasso's Guernica. Rodin's Gates of Hell. Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Moshe Safdie's Vancouver Library Square.


Glossary/Pronunciation Guide.

Artists' Pronunciation Guide.




30,000 BC-AD 2000


30,000 BC-AD 500 Prehistoric to Roman. 500-1500 Early Christian to Gothic. 1425-1640 Early Renaissance to Southern Baroque. 1500-1800 Northern Renaissance to Rococo. 1750-1950 Neoclassicism to Surrealism. 1945-2000 At the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.


The Prehistoric and Ancient World. Europe in the Early Twelfth Century. Renaissance Italy. Northern Europe in the mid-Nineteenth Century. The World in the Late Twentieth Century.


We are very pleased to be able to offer this new sixth edition of The Art of Seeing, for its features will bring readers even closer than before to an informed understanding of the fine and applied arts of the world. The scope of this understanding has been extended in many ways.


Color is such a critical element of design that the use of color illustrations has been greatly increased in this edition, with 66 new color images. We have particularly emphasized the reproduction of paintings in color and have added important painters who did not appear in previous editions, such as Bellini and Delacroix. The new artworks range from multi-media installations and Daniel Libeskind's model for a poignantly symbolic post-9/11 World Trade Center to wooden sculpture by the thirteenth-century Japanese master, Unkei.

The multicultural nature of the book has been enhanced with new material from contemporary Vietnamese, Indian, Chinese, Native American, and African artists. Women artists continue to be well represented throughout the book, particularly in contemporary pieces such as the provocative installation and performance work of Marina Abramovic.

Digital art has become an integral part of the contemporary art scene, so its coverage has been expanded and updated throughout the book as well as in the chapter on digital art. At the same time, consideration of historical movements has also been enhanced with additions such as a new section on Assyrian art.

The Art of Seeing has been completely redesigned for greater readability and clarity. Each chapter now begins with a helpful list of "Key Concepts" to help readersmentally organize the material that follows. Boxes in Chapter 15 summarizing major historical developments in Western art along with significant events of the times have been completely reorganized, with references to pieces of art previously illustrated in the book to explain particular topics, so that these works may also be better understood within their historical contexts.

Special feature boxes were introduced to the fifth edition entitled "The World Seen." Each examines an art form that has been highly developed in a particular time and place, such as the brush and ink paintings of Sung China, the precious metalwork of Tsarist Russia, the ivory work of the kingdom of Benin, and the traditional gold-embroidered saris that have now entered the realm of high fashion in India. The social and cultural factors that led to these heights are examined along with the exceptional skillfulness of the artists. In the sixth edition, another extraordinary art wonder of the world has been added: "The Hidden Temples of Angkor" in Cambodia. These "The World Seen" boxes are distinguished from the running text by their green-tinted headings.

The special feature boxes on "Art Issues" have also been updated and expanded, with the addition of boxes on "Looting of Art Treasures," prompted by thefts from the Baghdad Museum but also delving into other similar controversies, plus boxes on "Preserving Ephemeral Materials" and "The Camera Obscura: A Trade Secret?" Both in the text and in these special boxes we have attempted to explore many areas of controversy in the art world. These "Art Issues" boxes are distinguished from the running text by their brown-tinted headings.


As always, we have taken considerable effort in The Art of Seeing to make art come to life. The language we use is vigorous and down-to-earth, with many quotations from the artists themselves to help explain, in their own words, what they were trying to do. There are also numerous "Artists on Art" boxes throughout the book, distinguished by blue-tinted headings, featuring more lengthy passages in which major artists speak about their work in general, giving students valuable insights into art from the artists' point of view. Artists' own words about their work are a treasure trove for the student of art appreciation. Some of these are developed from our personal communications with the artists, some from historical documents. These quotations have been tightened in this edition to keep the focus relevant to issues being explored in the running text.

Carefully-chosen artworks are illustrated and described at the beginning of each chapter. These vignettes display works that are in some way emblematic of the entire topic to be discussed. These give a taste of what is to follow and an introduction to looking at that aspect of art.

Many illustrations are accompanied by discursive captions which augment the text discussions by giving related information about the content and context of the work. Some include interesting quotations from the artists about what they were attempting to do, thus deepening understanding of the work at hand.

There are many pedagogical aids in The Art of Seeing. In addition to the new "Key Concepts" lists at the beginning of each chapter, unfamiliar words are carefully defined where they are first used and those which are again defined in an extensive illustrated glossary at the end of the book are printed in boldface. Pronunciation aids are provided for words in the glossary that may be unfamiliar to students. There is also a guide in the back to the artists' names that are difficult to pronounce.

Art in The Art of Seeing is a stimulating, exciting visual gallery. The illustrations for each concept are clearly related to the text and carefully described. There are some 595 illustrations, 354 of them in color, many reproduced at full-page size. They are taken from all the visual arts, from painting and sculpture to clothing and industrial design. Use of such a global variety of illustrations from both fine and applied arts, old and new, allows us to broaden tastes in art and to demonstrate the underlying principles, elements, and issues in art, no matter what form it takes.

In Chapter 15, which traces the development of Western art, the discussion is enhanced by maps and timelines. The six maps show the regions where major trends in Western art developed and indicate key artistic centers, with insets of important buildings and monuments. Each map is accompanied by a timeline giving a global historical context to the evolution of Western art, up to the beginning of the twenty-first century.


Part 1 of The Art of Seeing lays the foundation for understanding the aesthetic aspects of a work of art. In Chapter 1, we develop an initial vocabulary and an intellectual framework for considering artworks: the creative impulse, the varying forms and content of its manifestation, critical opinion of the results, and, with time, recognition of the greatness of some works. Chapter 2 is devoted to extensive analysis of the visual elements with which the artist works: line, shapes, form, space, texture, light, color, and time. Chapter 3 covers the subtle organizing principles by which these elements are used in a work of art.

The next two parts of the book approach art through the materials and techniques used by the artists. By revealing the difficulties of each method, we hope to enhance appreciation of the artists' accomplishments in the face of the intractabilities of their media. Part 2 covers two-dimensional techniques and media: drawing, painting, printmaking, graphic design, photography, photo-copy, fax, film, television, video, and computer graphics. Part 3 covers three-dimensional media: sculpture, crags, industrial design, clothing design, architecture, interior design, environmental design, and the performing arts.

Part 4 approaches art as it exists in time. We first offer a concise approach to historical styles in Western art. Some 48 major movements, from prehistoric to contemporary, are covered, with an illustrated timeline on pages 430 and 431 as an aid to understanding how the distinctly different aesthetic movements are related in time. In addition, six maps show close-ups of particular periods so that one can see where the major artists of the time were working, in the context of major world events.

The final chapter is a unique, in-depth examination of specific works of art, including their evolution in time. It approximates the actual experience of encountering a work of art, drawing on all levels of appreciation developed in the book, in order to analyze and respond to four masterworks.

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