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Bedford/St. Martin's
The Bedford Handbook / Edition 9

The Bedford Handbook / Edition 9

by Diana Hacker, Nancy Sommers


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781457608025
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date: 10/18/2013
Edition description: Ninth Edition
Pages: 944
Sales rank: 385,971
Product dimensions: 5.00(w) x 6.90(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Diana Hacker personally class-tested her handbooks with nearly four thousand students over thirty-five years at Prince George’s Community College in Maryland, where she was a member of the English faculty. Hacker handbooks, built on innovation and on a keen understanding of the challenges facing student writers, are the most widely adopted in America. Hacker handbooks, all published by Bedford/St. Martin’s, include The Bedford Handbook, Tenth Edition (2017); A Writer’s Reference, Eighth Edition (2015); Rules for Writers, Eighth Edition (2016); A Pocket Style Manual, Seventh Edition (2015); and Writer’s Help 2.0, Hacker Version.
Nancy Sommers, who has taught composition and directed composition programs for thirty years, now teaches in Harvard’s Graduate School of Education.  She led Harvard’s Expository Writing Program for twenty years, directing the first-year writing program and establishing Harvard’s WAC program. A two-time Braddock Award winner, Sommers is well known for her research and publications on student writing. Her articles “Revision Strategies of Student and Experienced Writers” and “Responding to Student Writing” are two of the most widely read and anthologized articles in the field of composition.  Recently she has been exploring different audiences through blogging and through publishing in popular media. Sommers is the lead author on Hacker handbooks, all published by Bedford/St. Martin’s, and is coauthor of Fields of Reading, Tenth Edition (2013).

Table of Contents

LC = LearningCurve
Preface for Instructors 
Introduction: Becoming a College Writer 

Part I The Writing Process 
1  Exploring, planning, and drafting [e-Pages]  
Becoming a college writer: Choose topics you care about 
   a  Assessing the writing situation 
    b  Exploring your subject 
   Drafting and revising a working thesis 
   Drafting a plan 
   Drafting an introduction 
   f  Drafting the body 
   g  Drafting a conclusion 
   Managing your files  
2  Revising, editing, and reflecting [e-Pages]  
Becoming a college writer: Form a community of readers around you 
   a  Revising with comments 
    b  Approaching global revision in cycles  
   Revising and editing sentences; proofreading a final draft 
  d  Student writing: Literacy narrative 
    Writing guide: Literacy narrative 
  e  Preparing a portfolio; reflecting on your writing  
    Writing guide: Reflective opening statement for a portfolio 
3 Building effective paragraphs [e-Pages]   
   Focusing on a main point 
   b  Developing the main point 
   Choosing a suitable pattern of organization 
   Making paragraphs coherent 
   e  Adjusting paragraph length 
Part II  Academic Reading and Writing 
4  Reading and writing critically [e-Pages]
Becoming a college writer: Engage with the texts you read 
   a  Reading actively 
   Outlining a text to identify main ideas 
    c  Summarizing to deepen your understanding 
   d  Analyzing to demonstrate your critical reading 
   e  Sample student essay: Analysis of an article 
    Writing Guide: Analyzing a written text 
5  Reading and writing about images and multimodal texts [e-Pages]  
   a  Reading actively 
   Outlining to identify main ideas 
   Summarizing to deepen your understanding 
   d  Analyzing to demonstrate your critical reading 
   Sample student essay: Analysis of an advertisement 
6  Reading and writing arguments [e-Pages]  
Becoming a college writer
   a  Distinguishing between reasonable and fallacious argumentative tactics 
   b  Distinguishing between legitimate and unfair emotional appeals   
   c  Judging how fairly a writer handles opposing views 
    d  Identifying your purpose and context  
   Viewing your audience as a panel of jurors 
    f  Establishing credibility and stating your position 
   Backing up your thesis with persuasive lines of argument 
   h  Supporting your claims with specific evidence  
    i  Anticipating objections; countering opposing arguments  
   j  Building common ground 
   Sample argument paper 
    Writing Guide: Constructing an argument 
7  Reading and writing about literature [e-Pages]   
   a  Reading actively 
   b  Forming an interpretation 
   c  Drafting a working thesis 
    d  Using evidence from the text; avoiding plot summary 
   e  Observing the conventions of literature papers   
    f  Integrating quotations from the text 
    g  Documenting secondary sources and avoiding plagiarism 
   h  Sample student essays 
    ANALYSIS with a primary source and secondary sources  
Part III Clear Sentences  
8 Prefer active verbs. [e-Pages, LC]

   a  Active versus passive verbs  
    b  Active versus be verbs  
    c  Subject that names the actor  
9 Balance parallel ideas. [e-Pages, LC]
   a  Parallel ideas in a series  
   b  Parallel ideas presented as pairs  
   c  Repetition of function words  
10 Add needed words.   
   In compound structures  
   b  that  
   c  In comparisons  
   a, an, and the  
11 Untangle mixed constructions.   
   Mixed grammar  
   b  Illogical connections  
   is when, is where, and reason . . . is because  
12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers. [e-Pages]   
    a  Limiting modifiers  
    b  Misplaced phrases and clauses  
   Awkwardly placed modifiers  
   d  Split infinitives  
   e  Dangling modifiers  
13 Eliminate distracting shifts. [e-Pages, LC]
   a  Point of view (person, number)  
   Verb tense  
    c  Verb mood, voice  
    d  Indirect to direct questions or quotations  
14 Emphasize key ideas. [e-Pages]  
   Coordination and subordination  
   b  Choppy sentences  
   Ineffective or excessive coordination  
   d  Ineffective subordination  
   e  Excessive subordination  
   Other techniques  
15 Provide some variety. [e-Pages]   
    a  Sentence openings  
   b  Sentence structures  
   c  Inverted order  
   d  Question or quotation 
Part IV Word Choice  
16 Tighten wordy sentences. [e-Pages, LC]   
   Unnecessary repetition  
    c  Empty or inflated phrases  
   Simplifying the structure  
   e  Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words  
17 Choose appropriate language. [e-Pages, LC]   
   a  Jargon  
   b  Pretentious language, euphemisms, “doublespeak”  
   Obsolete and invented words  
   Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English  
   Levels of formality  
   Sexist language  
   g  Offensive language  
18 Find the exact words. [e-Pages, LC]   
   a  Connotations  
   b  Specific, concrete nouns  
    c  Misused words  
   d  Standard idioms  
   e  Clichés  
   Figures of speech  
Part V Grammatical Sentences  
19 Repair sentence fragments. [e-Pages, LC]

   a  Subordinate clauses  
    b  Phrases 
   Other fragmented word groups 
   d  Acceptable fragments  
20 Revise run-on sentences. [e-Pages, LC]
   a  Correction with coordinating conjunction  
   b  Correction with semicolon, colon, or dash  
   Correction by separating sentences  
   d  Correction by restructuring  
21 Make subjects and verbs agree. [e-Pages, LC] 
   a  Standard subject-verb combinations  
   b  Words between subject and verb 
   c  Subjects joined with and  
   d  Subjects joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor  
   e  Indefinite pronouns  
   Collective nouns  
   g  Subject following verb  
    h  Subject, not subject complement  
   i  who, which, and that  
    j  Words with plural form, singular meaning  
   k  Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases  
22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree. [e-Pages, LC]
   a  Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)  
   b  Collective nouns  
   Antecedents joined with and  
   Antecedents joined with or, nor, either . . or, or neither . . . nor  
23 Make pronoun references clear. [e-Pages, LC]
   a  Ambiguous or remote reference  
   Broad reference of this, that, which, and it  
   c  Implied antecedents  
   d  Indefinite use of they, it, and you  
   e  who for persons, which or that for things  
24 Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me. [e-Pages]   
   Subjective case for subjects and subject complements  
   b  Objective case for objects  
   d  Pronoun following than or as  
   e  we or us before a noun  
   f  ubjects and objects of infinitives  
   Pronoun modifying a gerund  
25 Distinguish between who and whom. [e-Pages]   
   a  In subordinate clauses  
   b  In questions  
   c  As subjects or objects of infinitives  
26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care. [e-Pages]   
   Adjectives to modify nouns  
   b  Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs  
   good and well, bad and badly 
   Comparatives and superlatives  
   Double negatives  
27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, and moods in standard English. [e-Pages, LC]
   Irregular verbs  
   b  lie and lay  
   -s (or -es) endings  
   d  -ed endings  
   e  Omitted verbs 
   Verb tense  
   Subjunctive mood  
Part VI Multilingual Writers and ESL Challenges 
28 Verbs [e-Pages, LC]
    a  Appropriate form and tense  
   Passive voice  
   c  Base form after a modal  
   d  Negative verb forms  
   e  Verbs in conditional sentences  
   Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives  
29 Articles [e-Pages, LC]   
   a  Articles and other noun markers  
   b  When to use the  
   c  When to use a or an  
   When not to use a or an  
   No articles with general nouns  
    f  Articles with proper nouns  
30 Sentence structure [e-Pages, LC]   
   Linking verb between a subject and its complement  
   A subject in every sentence  
   c  Repeated nouns or pronouns with the same grammatical function  
   Repeated objects, adverbs in adjective clauses  
   e  Mixed constructions with although or because  
   Placement of adverbs  
   Present participles and past participles  
   Order of cumulative adjectives  
31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions [e-Pages]   
   Prepositions showing time and place  
   Noun (including -ing form) after a preposition  
   Common adjective + preposition combinations  
   Common verb + preposition combinations  
Part VII Punctuation  
32 The comma [e-Pages, LC]

   a  Independent clauses joined with and, but, etc.  
   b  Introductory clauses or phrases 
   c  Items in a series  
   Coordinate adjectives  
   e  Nonrestrictive elements  
    f  Transitions, parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasts  
   g  Direct address, yes and no, interrogative tags, interjections  
   he said, etc.  
   Dates, addresses, titles, numbers 
33 Unnecessary commas [e-Pages]  
   a  Between two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses  
   Between a verb and its subject or object  
   c  Before the first or after the last item in a series  
   d  Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective  
   e  Before and after restrictive or mildly parenthetical elements  
   f  Before essential concluding adverbial elements  
   g  After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence  
   Other misuses  
34 The semicolon [e-Pages]   
   a  Independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction  
   b  Independent clauses linked with a transitional expression  
   c  Series containing internal punctuation  
35 The colon [e-Pages]
   a  Before a list, an appositive, a quotation, or a summary  
   b  Conventional uses 
   c  Misuses  
36 The apostrophe [e-Pages, LC]
   a  Possessive nouns  
   b  Possessive indefinite pronouns  
   d  Not for plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, words as words  
   e  Misuses  
37 Quotation marks [e-Pages]   
   a  Direct quotations  
   b  Quotation within a quotation  
   c  Titles of works  
   d  Words as words  
   e  With other punctuation marks  
    f  Misuses  
38 End punctuation   
   a  The period  
   b  The question mark  
   c  The exclamation point  
39 Other punctuation marks [e-Pages]   
   b  Parentheses  
   c  Brackets  
    d  Ellipsis mark  
   e  Slash  
Part VIII Mechanics  
40 Abbreviations [e-Pages]
   a  Titles with proper names  
    b  Familiar abbreviations  
   c  Conventional abbreviations  
    d  Units of measurement 
    e  Latin abbreviations  
   f  Plural of abbreviations 
   g  Misuses  
41 Numbers [e-Pages]  
   a  Spelling out  
   b  Using numerals  
42 Italics [e-Pages]   
   a  Titles of works  
   b  Names of spacecraft, aircraft, and ships  
   c  Foreign words  
    d  Words as words, letters as letters, and numbers as numbers 
43 Spelling   
   a  Spelling rules  
   b  The dictionary  
   Words that sound alike  
    d  Commonly misspelled words  
44 The hyphen [e-Pages]  
   Compound words  
   b  Hyphenated adjectives  
   Fractions and compound numbers  
   With certain prefixes and suffixes  
   e  To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters  
   Word division  
45 Capitalization [e-Pages, LC] 
   a  Proper versus common nouns  
   Titles with proper names 
   c  Titles and subtitles of works  
   d  First word of a sentence  
   e  First word of a quoted sentence  
   f  First word after a colon 
Part IX Grammar Basics  
46 Parts of speech [e-Pages, LC]

   a  Nouns 
   b  Pronouns   
   c  Verbs 
   e  Adverbs 
   g  Conjunctions   
47 Sentence patterns [e-Pages] 
   a  Subjects 
  Verbs, objects, and complements  
   c  Pattern variations  
48 Subordinate word groups [e-Pages]   
   a  Prepositional phrases 
   b  Verbal phrases  
   Appositive phrases 
   d  Absolute phrases  
   e  Subordinate clauses 
49 Sentence types [e-Pages]  
   Sentence structures 
    b  Sentence purposes 
Part X Researched Writing  
50 Conducting research [e-Pages]   
Becoming a college writer: Join a research conversation 
    a  Managing stress by managing the project 
   Posing questions worth exploring  
   c  Mapping out a search strategy  
    d  Searching efficiently; mastering a few shortcuts to finding good sources  
   Conducting field research, if appropriate 
51 Managing information; taking notes responsibly [e-Pages]  
   a  Maintaining a working bibliography  
   Keeping track of source materials  
   c  Avoiding unintentional plagiarism  
52 Evaluating sources [e-Pages]   
   Determining how sources might contribute to your writing  
   b  Selecting sources worth your time and attention  
   c  Selecting appropriate versions of online sources   
   Reading with an open mind and a critical eye   
   Assessing Web sources with care   
   Constructing an annotated bibliography 
    Writing Guide: Annotated bibliography 
Writing MLA papers  
53 Supporting a thesis [e-Pages]
    a  Forming a working thesis  
   b  Organizing ideas with a rough outline  
   c  Using sources to inform and support your argument  
   d  Drafting an introduction for your thesis  
   Providing organizational cues  
   Drafting the paper in an appropriate voice  
54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism [e-Pages]   
    a  Understanding how the MLA system works  
   b  Avoiding plagiarism when quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sources  
55 Integrating sources [e-Pages]   
Becoming a college writer: Provide context for sources   
   a  Using quotations appropriately  
   Using signal phrases to integrate sources  
   c  Synthesizing sources 
56 MLA documentation style [e-Pages]   
    a  MLA in-text citations  
   MLA list of works cited  
   c  MLA information notes (optional)  
57 MLA manuscript format; sample research paper  
   MLA manuscript format  
   b  Sample MLA research paper  
     Writing guide: Research paper 
Writing APA papers  
58 Supporting a thesis [e-Pages]   
   a  Forming a working thesis 
   b  Organizing your ideas 
   Using sources to inform and support your argument 
59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism [e-Pages]   
   a  Using the APA system for citing sources 
   Avoiding plagiarism  
60 Integrating sources [e-Pages] 
   a  Using quotations appropriately  
    b  Using signal phrases to integrate sources  
   Synthesizing sources   
61 APA documentation style [e-Pages]   
  APA in-text citations 
   b  APA list of references 
62 APA manuscript format; sample research paper  
   a  APA manuscript format 
   b  Sample APA research paper 
Writing Chicago papers  
63 Chicago papers [e-Pages]   
   a  Supporting a thesis  
   b  Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism  
   Integrating sources  
   d  Chicago documentation style   
   Chicago manuscript format  
   Sample Chicago research paper  
Part XI Writing in the Disciplines   
64 Learning to write in a discipline
   a  Finding commonalities across disciplines 
    b  Recognizing the questions that writers in a discipline ask 
   c  Understanding the kinds of evidence that writers in a discipline use 
   Becoming familiar with the discipline’s language conventions 
   Using a discipline’s preferred citation style 
65 Approaching writing assignments in the disciplines 
    a  Writing in psychology 
   b  Writing in business  
   Writing in biology 
   d  Writing in nursing 
APPENDIX: A Document Design Gallery  

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