In popular usage, "mysticism" typically refers to New Age or Eastern forms of spirituality. However, the mystical tradition is also an important component of the Christian tradition. At its heartand much like its expression in other faith traditionsChristian mysticism is an ancient practice that incorporates meditation, contemplation, worship, philosophy, the quest for personal enlightenment, and the experience of Divine presence. This volume is a comprehensive introduction and guide to Christian mysticism. It is a big book about a big possibility: the hope of achieving real, blissful, experiential unison with God. Among the topics covered here are a general introduction to mysticism, the Bible and mysticism, the history and types of Christian mysticism, biographical sketches of leading Christian mystics, and practical instructions about practicing mysticism today. This is a breathtaking work that explores a form of spirituality that has changed lives over the course of 2,000 years. Learning about Christian mysticism and how it has been articulated through the centuries will prove inspirational for today's seekers, regardless of the faith tradition. "The mystic is not a special kind of person; every person is a special kind of mytic." William McNamara
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About the Author
Carl McColman is a blogger, author, and spiritual director based in Stone Mountain, Georgia. He is the author of ten previous books exploring spirituality from a variety of perspectives.
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The Big Book of Christian Mysticism
THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO CONTEMPLATIVE SPIRITUALITY
By Carl McColman
Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.Copyright © 2010 Carl McColman
All rights reserved.
Hidden in Plain Sight
For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
II Corinthians 4:6
For the sages say that it is impossible for rational knowledge of God to coexist with the direct experience of God, or for conceptual knowledge of God to coexist with immediate perception of God.
Maximus the Confessor
Mysticism is a vague word that is used in a variety of ways to mean different things. This is not just because human beings are sloppy and like to use words in imprecise ways—although, granted, that's part of the problem. Rather, mysticism as a word or concept is impossible to define because it is, by nature, linked to spirituality, to mystery, to subjective experience—all notoriously squishy subjects. In this book, we attempt to unlock the mystery of mysticism, not only by appealing to the wisdom of the great mystics from more than 2,000 years of Christian history and the scholars who have written about them, but also by exploring the ways in which mysticism can enlighten our spiritual lives today.
The history of Christian mysticism includes a wide array of colorful and sometimes eccentric characters who have much to teach us, not only about Christianity and mysticism, but also about life in general. When we take the time to understand their lives in a way that honors their wisdom, we begin to find ways to apply that wisdom to our own lives. Ultimately, our goal must be not just to explore an interesting philosophical concept, but rather to understand mysticism as a powerful tool for transforming our minds, hearts, and souls.
What do the Christian mystics tell us? That the wisdom they offer us can literally unite us with God—or at the very least, give us such a powerful experience of God's presence that it can revolutionize our lives. The purpose of such transformed lives is not primarily to achieve a goal (like enlightenment or spiritual bliss), but rather to participate in the Holy Spirit's ongoing activity—embodying the flowing love of Christ, love that we in turn give back to God as well as to "our neighbors as ourselves." The mystical tradition manifests in a particular tension that persists throughout Christian history and is, thus, distinct from other expressions of Christian spirituality. You can be a Christian without being a mystic, and you can be a mystic without being a Christian. If you want to embrace Christian mysticism, however, you begin by embracing Christianity, both in its external, "religious" form, and also in its inner exploration of prayer, meditation, and contemplation.
The Problem with Mysticism
Over the years, I have found that many—perhaps most—of the books, websites, and blogs that treat the mystical dimension of Christianity tend to fall into two categories: the overly fanciful, and the overly boring.
Christian mysticism gets overly fanciful when you place too much emphasis on having "cool" spiritual experiences like cosmic consciousness or secret visions. While it is true that mysticism is experiential, Christian mysticism is also grounded in the love of God—a love which leads to healing, transformation, and growth in holiness. In other words, Christian mysticism is never an end to itself. The point behind mysticism is not to dazzle the mind with ecstatic wonders or heady feelings, but to foster real and lasting changes, for the purpose of becoming more like Christ, which is to say, more compassionate, more forgiving, more committed to serving others and making the world a better place. In other words, the experience is really just a small part of the overall package.
Likewise, students of Christian mysticism lose their way when they get too caught up in quests for secret knowledge, or hidden teachings that are supposedly the key to higher realities, that somehow have been lost (or suppressed) by church authorities. I'm willing to go with the idea that many of the key principles of Christian mysticism have been marginalized, ignored, or even rejected by many followers of Jesus, but there's no need to get all conspiratorial about this. The keys to Christian mysticism have been hidden in plain sight.
Unfortunately, there is a certain allure to the idea that some sort of secret body of knowledge has been squirreled away in the Vatican or in a monastery somewhere on the Sinai Peninsula for the past 1,500 years. History is full of colorful characters who have promoted themselves as the guardians of such long-lost information, offering to share their esoteric teachings with a select worthy few—for a hefty fee.
The real mystical tradition in Christianity is much broader and deeper than that. It is the story of people who receive powerful mystical experiences, undergo amazing and beautiful transformations of consciousness, and embody the teachings of Jesus—without getting lost in a fantasy world.
Another variation of this kind of fanciful mysticism is the idea that the only "real" mysticism comes from the East, from venerable wisdom traditions such as Vedanta or Zen. Therefore, "Christian" mysticism is really just Hinduism or Buddhism with a little bit of Jesus mixed in. But in fact, Christianity has its own, homegrown mystical tradition with its own practices, wisdom, and values. While it is true that, generally speaking, Christian mystics are more open to the wisdom of other religions than most Christians, this openness is rooted in loyalty to the central wisdom teachings of Christ, the Bible, and the Christian tradition.
Where can we turn to find the most authentic expressions of Christian mysticism? To that tradition, as embodied in the great mystics of history (see Appendix A). Christian mysticism is rooted in an easily identifiable body of wisdom teachings that can be traced back to the very origins of the faith. Great saints, monks, nuns, theologians, philosophers, and artists throughout the centuries have made contributions to the faith that include their experience as mystics. Francis of Assisi, Hildegard of Bingen, Thomas Aquinas, and Augustine are just a few of the many Christian spiritual geniuses who lived by and taught the wisdom of encountering the mysterious presence of God. Because they didn't draw attention to themselves or their experiences, their mysticism is, in a very real way, hidden in plain sight. It is not secret or occult, or part of an underground conspiracy. It is a very simple, humble, down-to-earth spirituality that has slipped unpretentiously across the stage of history. The problem is not that mystical teachings are hidden, but rather that so few people bother to learn the principles of Christian mysticism, much less apply them to their own lives.
If some writers err on the side of the overly fanciful, however, others err on the side of boredom. Many of the teachers and scholars who write about the genuine tradition of Christian mysticism without resorting to sensationalism or exaggeration are brilliant, intelligent experts who produce profound studies filled with fascinating insights—all too often, replete with complex ideas and arcane terminology, much of it Greek or Latin. Since mystical spirituality is intimately related to theology which in turn is related to philosophy, most of these studies are as challenging to read as the works of Plato, Aristotle, or Kant. Even when these academics work hard to make their studies accessible to those of us who don't have graduate degrees in logic, their books are often unavoidably dry and dull.
Many of the serious and scholarly books on mysticism tend to focus on its heritage—on the lives and the teachings of great mystics of the past— and have little or nothing to say concerning why mysticism matters today. In other words, they do a great job of telling you about mysticism, but don't really make mysticism come alive in an intimate, practical way. It seems to me that the central question we need to ask is how and why that ancient wisdom can be relevant today. How can we take the authentic Christian mysticism of history and apply it to our own spiritual lives?
The Search For Authentic Experience
I'm writing about Christian mysticism because I love Christ, and because I hunger for the presence of God in my life. I'm writing about it because I believe that the wisdom of great mystics—Julian of Norwich, John Ruus-broec, Richard of St. Victor, Teresa of Avila—can be applied to our lives today. I believe that, if enough of us try to conduct our lives according to their teachings, we can change our lives and the world.
The mystics point us to Christ, and to the powerful message of the gospel. So make no mistake: this is a book about how to live according to the teachings of the Christian faith. We look at topics like repentance, holiness, sacrifice, and prayer—difficult topics with which you may or may not be comfortable, depending on your background and beliefs. All I ask as you consider them is that you try to keep an open mind. I believe one of the powerful gifts of Christian mysticism is that it can take the truths of the gospel—ideas that sometimes come across as rigid or repressive in many contexts—and transform them into exciting, spiritually luminous principles by which we can ignite our lives into a profound experience of God's love and healing presence. If you are a devout Christian, I likewise ask you to approach this book with an open mind. Mysticism does not change the gospel. But it does shine an entirely new light on it that can help you see what has always been there in powerful and exciting new ways.
Christian mysticism is a concept unto itself—not just a "flavor" of some generic mystic philosophy. The cross-fertilization between Christianity and mysticism created something entirely new—a unique belief system that is different from all other kinds of mysticism.
Likewise, Christian mysticism is not the same thing as basic Christianity. The two are not incompatible, however. On the contrary, authentic Christian mysticism reflects and reinforces authentic Christianity. Any perceived conflict between them arises only when something has gone awry with one or the other. When Christianity is true to itself as a liberating faith in Jesus, and Christian mysticism is true to itself as a Christian encounter with the awesome mystery of God, they flow together beautifully and harmoniously. Nonetheless, while it is helpful to draw a distinction between Christianity-the-religion and Christian mysticism, the tradition has consistently emphasized that you cannot be a Christian mystic without engaging with the social and communal dimensions of the Christian faith. Indeed, the more authentic a Christian mystic is, the more engaged he or she will be with even the most mundane aspects of religious Christianity.
Likewise, there are real differences between generic mysticism, Christian mysticism, and all the other types of mysticism—Buddhist, Jewish, Hindu, etc. These differences are not absolute and we can, in fact, talk about mysticism in general ways. For example, we can make this statement: "Mysticism concerns spiritual experience." This is true for mysticism in general as well as for Christian mysticism. But we must also acknowledge the real differences that distinguish Christian mysticism from world mysticism. For example, many forms of non-Christian mysticism are anchored in the idea that human beings are (or can become) identical with God. Christianity denies this, and Christian mysticism concurs. Christian mysticism pursues participation with God, communion with God, and even experiences of union with God, but always distinguishes creator from creature. To deny that distinction is to move away from Christian mysticism, even if you talk about Jesus all the time.
I'm belaboring this point because I anticipate three kinds of people will pick up this book: non-Christians who are interested in mysticism, but perhaps not favorably disposed to Christianity; Christians who are interested in, but perhaps not favorably disposed to, mysticism; and people who are interested in Christian mysticism (regardless of their faith). I point this out because I need to be clear about my own perspective: I love Christianity; I love mysticism in general—including all the different "types" of mysticism; and I love Christian mysticism and understand it as a unique phenomenon. It is, however, my goal to write an honest book, which means being honest about both my Christian faith and my fascination with mysticism.
Part of the challenge in writing about this topic is that there are plenty of people who love mysticism, but are suspicious of Christianity. And there are others who are committed to Christianity, but are unsure about mysticism. I want to write a book that honors readers wherever they are on their own spiritual journeys. I can't guarantee that I'll win anyone over to my point of view, but I can hope to give everyone who reads this book a new insight or two, or something to think about. If you have a positive attitude (or, at least, an open mind) toward both Christianity and mysticism, you will find plenty of information here to consider as you proceed on your own spiritual journey. My goal is to inspire and encourage you to make Christian mysticism a part of your life.
I believe Christian mysticism can transform you. It's a form of alchemy that integrates Christianity's promise of new life in Christ with mysticism's promise of experiencing the presence of God. It allows something to emerge that is greater than the sum of its parts; it illuminates a path by which you can open yourself to what the Apostle Paul calls "letting the mind (consciousness) of Christ be in you" and what the Apostle Peter calls "partaking of the divine nature." Christian mysticism invites you to do more than just know about God, or Christ, or spiritual transformation. It invites you into God, and into Christ, and into the experience of transformation that can come about only through the love and grace of God. It's intimate; it's heartful and mindful; it's oriented toward making a real, powerful, profound, and lasting difference in your life and your relationships.
Of course, whether you accept the invitation is entirely up to you.CHAPTER 2
For my thoughts are not your thoughts, nor are your ways my ways, says the LORD.
What, then, is time? I know well enough what it is, provided that nobody asks me; but if I am asked what it is and try to explain, I am baffled.
Some people think mysticism means having powerful spiritual experiences, like seeing heavenly visions, or hearing supernatural voices, or feeling a sense of communion with God, or undergoing profound shifts in consciousness. Others see it as a spiritual dimension to (and beyond) religion, in which the cultural, ethical, and theological differences between religions are somehow resolved in a trans-verbal state of unity. Still others dismiss it as the fuzzy, illogical, and irrational element that makes religion and spirituality so distasteful to those who prefer to conduct their lives according to science rather than faith (which they see as superstition). These, and other, ways of understanding mysticism all make sense in their own context. But none of them manages to appreciate mysticism's treasures fully.
Probably the first important thing that needs to be said about mysticism is that you can never adequately put it into words. And, although there are many different kinds of mysticism, the inability to describe them adequately with words—in other words, the ineffability of mysticism—holds true for them all. Indeed, trying to understand mysticism is futile, and we must begin our discussion with the recognition that it cannot be precisely defined.
Love in a Bottle
It's like trying to put love in a bottle. It just can't be done. To begin with, love is not something that can be pinned down to a specific point in space and time. It is a spiritual reality that can never be defined, or enclosed or "captured."
Much the same is true of mysticism. Its essence simply cannot be captured in human language—indeed, not even by the most sublime reaches of human thought. We can use language to suggest mysticism—to allude to it, to point to it, to create poetic metaphors or analogies about it that ring true—but these linguistic interpretations are ultimately like attempts to empty the ocean with a teaspoon. Like God or spirituality or heaven, mysticism takes us beyond what the most eloquent and poetic language can ever express. It pushes you to the limits of your imagination and then says, "take another step." And another, and another.
Dr. Seuss once wrote a book called On Beyond Zebra! that explored all the meta-letters that exist in his imaginary alphabet, beyond the twenty-six of the standard English alphabet. Mysticism is like Seuss's alphabet. It pushes beyond the normal boundaries of human thought, human logic, and human rationality and knowing. It goes beyond the limits of philosophy, theology, psychology, and science. But whereas Dr. Seuss was just playing make-believe, mysticism points to something that countless witnesses, in cultures all across the world and in every age from the dawn of recorded history, insist is utterly real—maybe even more real than the universe and consciousness we normally inhabit.
Excerpted from The Big Book of Christian Mysticism by Carl McColman. Copyright © 2010 Carl McColman. Excerpted by permission of Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
Part I The Christian Mystery 13
Chapter 1 Hidden in Plain Sight 15
Chapter 2 Defining Mysticism 23
Chapter 3 How Mysticism Became Christian 37
Chapter 4 The Evolution of Christian Mysticism 47
Chapter 5 Christian Mysticism and World Mysticism 57
Chapter 6 Why Mysticism Matters 65
Chapter 7 The Mystical Paradoxes 75
Chapter 8 Christianity's Best-Kept Secret 121
Part II The Contemplative Life 131
Chapter 9 The Mystical Body 133
Chapter 10 Kenosis and Perichoresis 159
Chapter 11 The Path of Holiness 167
Chapter 12 The Journey that Isn't a Journey 183
Chapter 13 Lectio Divina 189
Chapter 14 The Heavenly Conversation 201
Chapter 15 Prayer Beyond Words 219
Chapter 16 Wood, Water, and Wine 235
Chapter 17 The Heart of the Mystery 247
Appendix A The Communion of Mystics 258
Appendix B A Contemplative Reading List 272
Appendix C Online Resources 282
Selected Bibliography 289
Recent and Contemporary Christian Contemplatives 294
Resources on Christian Mysticism 299
Other Worthwhile Sources 306