The Biology of Gambling

The Biology of Gambling

by Mikel J. Aasved

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Overview

The Biology of Gambling is the third volume in the Gambling Theory and Research Series. Author Mikal Aasved wrote this series to meet the need for a comprehensive review and synthesis of the many published materials pertaining to gambling theory and research. The series summarizes and critiques the findings and conclusions of investigators who have attempted to determine the motivations for gambling, both normative and excessive. Dr. Aasved provides a thorough examination of the research efforts and theoretical explanations of leaders in the field of gambling studies. This volume focuses on the etiological or causal theories that have been advanced by specialists in the medical sciences, an increasing number of whom are adopting the view that biological factors play an important role in the developmnet of many addictive, obsessive-compulsive, and other maladaptive behavior disorders. The fifteen chapters are divided into four parts. Part I reviews medical or disease models of addiction, discussing early and later conceptions. The core features of addiction, the alcohol dependence syndrome, heritability of addiction, longitudinal studies, and the quest to discover the biological basis of addiction are explored in detail. Part II examines the medical models of pathological gambling by exploring early ideas on gambling and human evolution, recent definition and diagnosis of pathological gambling, criticisms of the medical and addiction models, treatment goals, and the ongoing quest to discover the biological basis of pathological gambling. Part III concerns multicausal models of pathological gambling, and focuses on general theories of addiction, gambling-specific theories, and finishes with a critique of multicausal approaches. Part IV integrates the contents of the book by highlighting its main points and offering such concluding observations as: "Where do we now stand, and where do we go from here?" This book, as well as the entire

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780398074463
Publisher: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Limited
Publication date: 01/01/2004
Series: The Gambling Theory and Research Ser.
Pages: 372
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Prefacevii
Acknowledgmentsix
Introduction to the Series3
A Question of Morals?5
An Addiction?7
The Definitional Issue in Addiction Research7
Co-Addiction9
The Nature-Nurture Controversy in Mental Health and Addiction Studies12
Scientific Approaches13
A Note on Gender Bias14
Introduction to this Volume16
Part IMedical or Disease Models of Addiction
Chapter 1.Early Views21
The Core Features of Addiction23
The medical Model of Alcoholism25
Initial Impressions26
The World Health Organization27
E. M. Jellinek's Disease Concept of Alcoholism30
What Constitutes a Disease?31
The Progression of Alcohol Addiction32
Chapter 2.Later Views34
The Alcohol Dependence Syndrome34
More Recent Medical Conceptions of Alcoholism36
The Heritability of Addiction37
Family Studies37
Adoption Studies37
Twin Studies38
Conclusions of Heritability Studies39
Longitudinal Studies39
Possible Genetic Markers for Alcohol Dependence40
Abnormal Brain Wave Patterns42
Blood Enzyme Activities42
Neurochemical Imbalances42
Other Possibilities42
Alcoholics Anonymous43
Chapter 3.The Quest to Discover the Biological Basis of Addiction44
Neurochemistry and Addiction44
The Biology of Reward45
Biochemical Dysfunction, Genetics, and Inherited Addiction46
Dopamine and GABA46
Serotonin48
Endogenous Opiates and TIQs49
Adaptation, Tolerance, and Acquired Addiction50
Summary of Addiction Research52
Part IIMedical or Disease Models of Pathological Gambling
Chapter 4.Gambling and Human Evolution57
W. I. Thomas and Clemens J. France: Gambling as a Survival Instinct58
Summary and Critique60
Lamarckian vs. Darwinian Evolutionary Theories: A Brief Digression61
Chapter 5.Jellinek's Legacy: The Disease Concept of Compulsive Gambling64
Emmanuel Moran: Pathological Gambling as a Medical Syndrome64
Varieties of Pathological Gambling65
Robert L. Custer: The Types and Phases of Compulsive Gambling68
A Typology of Gamblers69
Pathological Gambling as a Psychological Illness70
Critique of Custer's Ideas on the Nature of Addiction72
The Personality of the Compulsive Gambler73
The Psychology of the Compulsive Gambler: Anxiety, Depression, and Low Self-Esteem74
The Biology of the Compulsive Gambler: Personality Factors75
Family History and Withdrawal Symptoms76
The Allure of Gambling76
Addiction as a Habit77
The Phases of Compulsive Gambling77
Suicide80
Female Pathological Gamblers81
Recovery81
Chapter 6.The Definition and Diagnosis of Pathological Gambling82
GA's 20 Questions82
DSM-III Criteria, 198083
Criticisms84
DSM-III-R Criteria, 198785
Criticisms87
DSM-IV Criteria, 199488
Criticisms89
Jurgen Schwarz and Andreas Lindner: Pathological Gambling as an Incurable Disease of Unknown Origin90
Stages in the Development of Pathological Gambling90
Howard Shaffer and Colleagues: Levels of Gambling Involvement91
Chapter 7.The Quest to Discover the Biological Basis of Pathological Gambling94
Biochemical Deficiencies and Nonchemical Addiction94
Comorbidity: Pathological Gambling and Other Psychiatric Disorders100
Depression101
Neuropsychological Deficits and Impulsivity105
Critique of Comorbidity Studies110
Intelligence111
Is Pathological Gambling a Hereditary Disorder?112
Family History and Problem Gambling112
Twin Studies115
Chapter 8.Critique of the Medical Model119
Deviance Is Not a Disease119
Compulsive Gambling Is Not a Disease121
Critique of the Anti-Disease Movement125
Chapter 9.Critique of the Addiction Model130
Gambling Is Not a Drug130
Tolerance: The Escalation of Risk133
The Loss of Control Concept134
The Gambling Withdrawal Syndrome135
Dissociative States138
The "Big Win" Hypothesis139
Chapter 10.Treatment Goals: Abstinence vs. Moderation142
Extrapolating from Alcohol Research142
Behavior Modification in the Treatment of Alcoholism142
The Controlled Drinking Controversy143
The Binary Classification of Heavy Drinkers146
The Medical Model Thrives148
The Binary Classification of Heavy Gamblers149
Theoretical Implications151
Summary and Conclusions153
Part IIIMulticausal Models of Pathological Gambling
Chapter 11.General Theories of Addiction: Relief and Escape159
Preliminary Observations159
Durand jacobs: The Addictive Personality Syndrome161
Critique163
Richard McCormick: Need-State Theory165
Richard McCormick: Learned Helplessness Theory166
Critique170
Chapter 12.General Theories of Addiction: Sensation-seeking and Arousal173
The "Action" Motive173
The Vicious Cycle and Opponent-Process Theory174
Critique178
R. I. F. Brown: Reversal Theory179
Critique184
Kenneth Blum and Colleagues: The Reward Deficiency Syndrome185
Chapter 13.Gambling-Specific Theories188
Gerolamo Cardano: The Father of Gambling Studies188
Vicki Abt et al.: The Synoptic Model of Normative Gambling193
Conventional or Benign Gambling194
Nonconventional or Harmful Gambling194
The Synoptic Approach196
Mark Griffiths: The Origins and Persistence of Fruit Machine Gambling198
Michael Walker's General Theory of Gambling: An Eclectic Approach200
The "Distal" Causes of Gambling200
The "Proximal" Causes of Gambling202
Richard Rosenthal: A Modern Psychoanalyst's View203
Gambling Motivations and Expectancies203
Humanizing Pathological Gambling: A Case History205
Alex Blaszczynski: A Pathway Model of Etiology and Treatment207
Critique209
Critique of Multicausal Approaches211
Part IVConclusions
Chapter 14.Concluding Summary215
Medical Models of Addiction216
The Biological Basis of Addiction218
Medical Models of Pathological Gambling220
The Biological Basis of Pathological Gambling223
Critique of the Medical and Addiction Models225
Treatment: Abstinence vs. Moderation228
Multicausal Models of Pathological Gambling230
Chapter 15.Concluding Observations236
Preface236
The State of the Art: Where Do We Now Stand?236
Research Priorities: Where Do We Go From Here?241
Appendix.Summary of Etiological Theories of Gambling249
Notes259
References285
Index339

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