The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea: Their Systematics and Biology

The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea: Their Systematics and Biology

by Michael Parsons

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780125455558
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 10/31/1998
Pages: 928
Product dimensions: 8.83(w) x 12.14(h) x 1.99(d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

NOTE ADDED IN PROOF xv

PART I

1. SCOPE AND FORMAT OF THE BOOK I

Format and Categories of Species Accounts 1

Races 1

Range 1

Adults 2

Early Stages 3

Foodplants 3

Habits 3

Notes 3

Abbreviations 3

Geographical 3

Institutions and Collections 3

Species Descriptions 3

List of Abbreviations 4

2. NEW GUINEA PAST AND PRESENT 7

Plate Tectonics, Gondwanaland and New Guinea's Origins 7

Island Arc Theories 10

Present-day Structure and Topography 13

Climate 14

Vegetation 16

3. WORLD FAUNAL REGIONS AND BUTTERFLY DIVERSITY 19

Faunal Regions 19

New Guinea Butterfly Diversity 21

4. ORIGINS AND COMPOSITION OF THE NEW GUINEA BUTTERFLY FAUNA 25

General Faunistics 25

Climatic and Ecological Effects 27

Migration and Dispersal 29

General Effects of Insularity 31

Local Topographic Effects 33

Continental Drift 34

Genetics and Associated Factors 40

Conclusions 41

5. A HISTORY OF BUTTERFLY COLLECTING IN NEW GUINEA 43

Background: Early Exploration 43

Expeditions and the Start of Comprehensive Collecting 44

Miscellaneous Collectors 64

6. BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION AND COMMERCE IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 67

Valuable Goods 67

Problems of Habitat Conservation 67

Origins of the New Guinea Butterfly Trade 68

Case Study: the Birdwings 69

Rationales of Conservation Through Commerce 71

The Insect Farming and Trading Agency 72

Butterfly Farms 74

Collecting: An Important Part of the System 75

Conclusions 76

7. ASPECTS OF BUTTERFLY ECOLOGY IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA 79

Local and Regional Abundance 79

Habitat Preference and Home-Range Behaviour 81

Plantations as 'Artificial Habitats' 84

Adult Food and Feeding Behaviour 84

Adult Courtship and Mating 85

Myrmecophily - Lycaenid/Ant Relationships 86

Ectoparasitism 89

Mortality Factors 89

Eggs 89

Larvae 90

Prepupae and Pupae 90

Adults 90

Diapause 90

8. MIMICRY IN NEW GUINEA BUTTERFLIES 93

1. Alcidis agathrysus Uraniid Moth Complex 95

2. Agaristine Noctuid and Arctiid Moth Complex 96

3. Troidine Papilionid Complexes 96

4. Delias Pierid Complex 97

5. Danis/Psychonotis Polyommatine Lycaenid Complex 98

6. Danaine Nymphalid Complex 98

7. Tellervo Ithomiine Nymphalid Complex 100

8. Taenaris Morphine Nymphalid Complex 102

9. Heliconiine Nymphalid Complex 103

9. COLLECTION AND STUDY 105

Field Collecting 105

Preparing the Collection 105

Sexing Butterflies 106

Dissection and Study of Genitalia 106

Studying Wing-Venation 107

10. ADULT STRUCTURE 109

Head 109

Thorax 109

Abdomen 112

Genitalia 113

Male 113

Female 114

11. CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE 117

Systematics and Taxonomy 117

Nomenclature 118

The Butterfly Families 119

Distinguishing Moths from Butterflies 122

Problems of Species and Subspecies 122

Problems in Phylogenetic Analyses and the Importance of Early Stage Taxonomic Studies 125

Conclusions 126

PART II

12. SUPERFAMILY HESPERIOIDEA LATREILLE, 1809: FAMILY HESPERIIDAE LATREILLE, 1809 - SKIPPERS 129

SUBFAMILY PYRGINAE BURMEISTER, 1878 131

SUBFAMILY COELIADINAE EVANS, 1937 142

SUBFAMILY TRAPEZITINAE WATERHOUSE 8L LYELL, 1914 152

SUBFAMILY HESPERIINAE LATREILLE, 1809 158

13. SUPERFAMILY PAPILIONOIDEA LATREILLE, 1802: 211

FAMILY PAPILIONIDAE LATREILLE, 1802 - SWALLOWTAILS 211

SUBFAMILY PAPILIONINAE LATREILLE, 1803 214

14. FAMILY PIERIDAE DUPONCHEL, 1835 - WHITES 217

SUBFAMILY COLIADINAE SWAINSON, 1827 274

SUBFAMILY PIERINAE DUPONCHEL, 1835 285

15. FAMILY LYCAENIDAE LEACH, 1815 - BLUES 323

SUBFAMILY RIODININAE GROTE, 1895 327

SUBFAMILY CURETINAE DISTANT, 1884 335

SUBFAMILY LYCAENINAE LEACH, 1815 337

16. FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE SWAINSON, 1827 - NYMPHS 479

SUBFAMILY LIBYTHEINAE DUPONCHEL, 1844 483

SUBFAMILY ITHOMIINAE KIRBY, 1894 485

SUBFAMILY DANAINAE BOISDUVAL, 1833 491

SUBFAMILY MORPHINAE NEWMAN, 1834 522

SUBFAMILY SATYRINAE BOISDUVAL, 1833 542

SUBFAMILY CHARAXINAE DOHERTY, 1886 573

SUBFAMILY APATURINAE BOISDUVAL, 1840 578

SUBFAMILY NYMPHALINAE SWAINSON, 1827 584

SUBFAMILY HELICONIINAE SWAINSON, 1827 616

KEYS TO PNG TAXA

Notocrypta (Hesperiidae) 161

Gegenes group (Hesperiidae) 204

Elodina species (Pieridae) 286

Males of Callictita species and their subspecies (Lycaenidae) 457

Tellervo species (Nymphalidae) 486

Indo-Australian Genera of New Guinea Heliconiinae (Nymphalidae) 619

APPENDICES

I. Important Geographical Synonyms 637

II. Important Collectors' Label Data 638

III. All Taxonomic Changes of Papua New Guinea Butterflies Presented in this Book 641

IV. Checklist of High Altitude Butterfly Species in New Guinea 646

V. New Guinea Butterfly Genera Also Occurring in the Oriental Subregion 647

VI. New Guinea Butterfly Genera Restricted to the Australian Subregion 649

VII. Butterfly Genera Endemic to the New Guinea Mainland 650

VIII. Restricted Distribution Endemics of New Guinea 651

IX. Checklist of Named Taxa of Atrophaneura polydorus in the New Guinea Region 654

X. Annotated list of New Guinea Butterfly Genera 655

XI. Checklist of New Guinea butterflies 657

BIBLIOGRAPHY 683

GLOSSARY 723

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