Winner of the Jefferson Davis Award, American Civil War Museum
Winner of the Johns Family Book Award, American Historical Association (Pacific Coast Branch)
Winner of the Army Historical Foundation, Inc., Distinguished Writing Award
“A work of deep intellectual seriousness, sweeping and yet also delicately measured, this book promises to resolve longstanding debates about the nature of the Civil War.”Gregory P. Downs, author of After Appomattox
Shiloh, Chancellorsville, Gettysburgtens of thousands of soldiers died on these iconic Civil War battlefields, and throughout the South civilians suffered terrible cruelty. At least three-quarters of a million lives were lost during the American Civil War. Given its seemingly indiscriminate mass destruction, this conflict is often thought of as the first “total war.” But Aaron Sheehan-Dean argues for another interpretation.
The Calculus of Violence demonstrates that this notoriously bloody war could have been much worse. Military forces on both sides sought to contain casualties inflicted on soldiers and civilians. In Congress, in church pews, and in letters home, Americans debated the conditions under which lethal violence was legitimate, and their arguments differentiated carefully among victimswomen and men, black and white, enslaved and free. Sometimes, as Sheehan-Dean shows, these well-meaning restraints led to more carnage by implicitly justifying the killing of people who were not protected by the laws of war. As the Civil War raged on, the Union’s confrontations with guerrillas and the Confederacy’s confrontations with black soldiers forced a new reckoning with traditional categories of lawful combatants and raised legal disputes that still hang over military operations around the world today.
In examining the agonizing debates about the meaning of a just war in the Civil War era, Sheehan-Dean discards conventional abstractionstotal, soft, limitedas too tidy to contain what actually happened on the ground.
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About the Author
Aaron Sheehan-Dean is Fred C. Frey Professor of Southern Studies at Louisiana State University. His previous books include The Civil War: The Final Year Told by Those Who Lived It and Why Confederates Fought: Family and Nation in Civil War Virginia. He is currently editing the Cambridge History of the American Civil War.
Table of Contents
Introduction: The Puzzle of the Civil War 1
1 Who Can Make War? 12
2 The Rising of the People 44
3 Soldiers and Citizens 82
4 Kindling the Fires of Liberty 132
5 Unnecessary Violence 180
6 Discipline, Order, and Justice 233
7 Children of God 270
8 The Importance of States 314
Conclusion: The Double-Edged Sword 352
Illustration Credits 453