The Cell Biology of Sponges

The Cell Biology of Sponges

by T.L. Simpson

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984)

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Modem biology owes much to the study of favorable model systems which fa­ cilitates the realization of critical experiments and results in the introduction of new concepts. Examples of such systems are numerous and studies of them are regularly recognized by the scientific community. The 1983 Nobel Prize in Med­ icine and Physiology is a magnificent example in which com plants served as the experimental model. In a manner somewhat more modest, other biological systems have attracted recognition due to their critical phylogenetic position, or indeed because of their uniqueness which distinguishes them from all other organisms. Assuredly, among the whole assemblage ofliving organisms, sponges stand out as worthy of interest by scientists: they are simultaneously models, an important group in evolution, and animals unlike others. As early as the beginning of this century, sponges appeared as exceptional models for the study of phenomena of cell recognition. Innumerable works have been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms which assure the reaggregation of dissociated cells and the reconstitution of a functional individual. Today, re­ search on these phenomena is at the ultimate, molecular level. Through an as­ semblage of characteristics the sponges are, based upon all available evidence, the most primitive Metazoans. Their tissues-perhaps one can say their cell groups-are loosely assembled (they possess no tight or gap junctions), cell dif­ ferentiation appears highly labile, and they do not develop any true organs. But, they are most certainly Metazoans.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461297406
Publisher: Springer New York
Publication date: 11/01/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1984
Pages: 662
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.05(d)

Table of Contents

Morphology.- 1. Functional Morphology and Morphological Variation.- General Features.- Functional Morphology.- Variation in Morphology: The New Systematics.- Skeletal Morphology.- Spicule Geometry as a Major Morphological Feature.- Other Morphological, Reproductive and Biochemical Features.- Morphological Variation in the Phylum.- Cellular Structure.- 2. The Epithelia.- Pinacocytes (Excluding Hexactinellids).- Choanocytes (Excluding Hexactinellids).- Variation in Cell Shape.- Pinacoderm and Choanoderm in Hexactinellida.- Contractile Vacuoles and Water Balance.- 3. Cellular Components of the Mesohyl.- Cell Types and Structure.- Archeocytes, Polyblasts, Thesocytes.- Spongocytes, Gemmular Epithelium, Lophocytes, Trophocytes, Megasclerocytes.- Histoblasts, Collencytes, Fiber Cells, Myocytes, Neuroid Cells.- Microsclerocytes.- Special Cells—Cellules à Inclusions.- Summary of Special Cells.- The Cortex.- Cords of Cells.- Symbionts.- Cyanobacteria.- Zooxanthellae.- Zoochlorellae.- Bacteria.- Some Problems in Symbiont-Host Relationships.- Pigment.- Cellular Functions.- 4. Calcification, Silicification, Bioerosion.- Calcareous Deposits: Morphology, Chemistry, Distribution.- Calcareous Spicules.- Calcareous Scales.- Cemented Calcareous Spicules.- Aspicular Calcareous Deposits.- The Secretion of Calcareous Spicules.- Factors Affecting Calcareous Spicule Secretion.- Morphogenetic and Developmental Aspects of Calcareous Spicule Secretion.- The Secretion of Other Calcareous Structures.- Siliceous Deposits: Morphology, Chemistry, Distribution.- Siliceous Spicules of Demosponges.- Siliceous Scales.- Siliceous Spicules of Hexactinellids.- Cemented Siliceous Spicules.- Entrapped Siliceous Spicules.- The Secretion of Siliceous Spicules.- Demosponges.- Hexactinellids.- Factors Affecting Siliceous Spicule Secretion.- Morphogenetic and Developmental Aspects of Siliceous Spicule Secretion.- The Secretion of Other Siliceous Structures.- Iron Containing Deposits.- Excavation of Calcareous Substrata.- General Features of Burrowing and the Species Involved.- Cellular Basis of Etching.- Mechanisms of Burrowing.- Morphogenetic Aspects of Burrowing.- 5. Collagen Fibrils, Spongin, Matrix Substances.- Collagen: Morphology, Chemistry, Distribution.- Collagen Fibrils.- Spongin Fibers.- Gemmule Coats.- Collagen Synthesis and Secretion.- Biochemical Aspects of Collagen Synthesis.- Cellular Aspects of Collagen Secretion.- Other Organic Products.- Biochemical Studies.- Cytochemical and Morphological Studies.- Fibronectin.- Morphogenetic and Developmental Aspects of Organic Matrix Substances.- 6. Canal System Structure and Activities.- Ostia.- Structure in Calcarea.- Structure in Demospongiae.- Structure in Hexactinellida.- Development.- Incurrent Canals.- Inhalant “Organs”.- Papillae.- Other Patterns.- Cellular Features.- Development.- The Terms Prosopyles and Apopyles.- Aphodal, Diplodal, Asconoid, and Syconoid Arrangements.- Pinacocytic Prosopyles.- Choanocytic Prosopyles.- Choanocyte Chambers.- Structural Heterogeneity of Chambers.- Development.- Choanocytic Apopyles.- Pinacocytic Apopyles.- Excurrent Canals.- Structure.- Development.- Morphological Patterns.- Oscules.- Morphological Types.- Cellular Features.- Development.- Canal System Elements in Reproductive Stages.- Water Currents.- Origin and Direction.- Transport Rates and Velocities.- Types of Changes in Water Transport.- Effectors Which Directly Influence Water Currents.- Responses of Effectors to Experimental Stimuli.- Spontaneous Changes in Water Currents.- Environmental Factors Influencing Water Currents.- Intrinsic Control of Water Currents.- Coordination by Neuroid Cells.- Feeding.- Retention of Particulates.- Sites of Entrapment—Ingestion.- Distribution and Digestion.- Elimination.- Development.- 7. Gamete, Embryo, Larval Development.- General Features of Sexual Reproduction.- Gametogenesis.- Spermatogenesis.- Oogenesis.- Nurse Cells.- Factors Influencing Gametogenesis.- Temperature.- Size of Animals.- Age and Other Factors.- Sex Determination.- Gamete Release.- Fertilization.- Cleavage.- Somatic Cells Associated with Embryos.- Polarity, Micromeres, Macromeres.- Larval Formation.- Larval Structure.- Processes in Larva Formation.- Reports of Asexually Formed Larvae.- Embryo and Larva Release.- Attachment of Larvae to the Substratum.- The Problem of the Polarity of the Larva.- Larval Metamorphosis.- Experimental Embryology.- 8. Buds, Gemmules, Tissues Regression.- Buds.- Fragmentation: A Special Case of Budding.- Budding.- Gemmules.- Occurrence of Gemmule Producing Species.- Life Cycles Involving Gemmules.- The Gemmule Envelope.- The Gemmular Cells—Thesocytes.- Gemmule Formation in Spongillids.- Gemmule Formation in Marine Species.- Determinants of Gemmule Formation.- Gemmule Dormancy.- Gemmule Germination.- Gemmule Hatching.- Tissue Regression.- A Special Case of Tissue Regression: Reduction Bodies.- 9. Growth, Regeneration, Cell Recognition, Perspective on Cell Differentiation.- Growth.- Initiative Growth.- Maturational Growth.- Remodeling.- Growth as an Increase in Size or Volume.- Experimental Regeneration.- Explants.- Transection of Whole Animals.- Tissue Ablation.- Tissue Recognition.- Reaggregation and Reconstitution of Dissociated Cells.- Perspective on Cell Differentiation.- References.

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