In The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice, philosophers, sociologists, and historians of science offer a multidisciplinary view of the complex interrelationships of values in science and society in both contemporary and historic contexts. They analyze the impact of commercialization and politicization on epistemic aspirations, and, conversely, the ethical dilemmas raised by “practically relevant” science in today's society. For example, much scientific research over the past quarter century has been guided by the financing that supports it. What effect has this had on the quality of research produced and the advancement of real knowledge?
The contributors reveal how social values affect objectivity, theory, and the direction of inquiry, and examine the byproducts of external value systems in topics such as “expertise” and “socially robust knowledge,” among others. They view science's own internal value systems, the earlier disconnection of societal values from the scientific process, and the plausibility of “value free” science.
The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice presents an in-depth analysis that places the role of values at the center of philosophical debate and raises questions of morality, credibility, and the future role of values in scientific inquiry.
|Publisher:||University of Pittsburgh Press|
|Product dimensions:||5.60(w) x 8.80(h) x 0.70(d)|
About the Author
Martin Carrier is professor of philosophy at Bielefeld University in Germany.
Don Howard is professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.
Janet Kourany is associate professor of philosophy at the University of Notre Dame.
Table of ContentsPreface vii
Introduction: Science and the Social Martin Carrier 1
The Play of Values within the Core Areas of Scientific Research
Must Evidence Underdetermine Theory? John D. Norton 17
Values and Their Intersection: Reduction as Methodology and Ideology Margaret Morrison 45
Values, Heuristics, and the Politics of Knowledge Helen E. Longino 68
Replacing the Ideal of Value-Free Science Janet A. Kourany 87
Scientific Values and the Values of Science Jay F. Rosenberg 112
The Demands of Society on Science: Socially Robust Knowledge and Expertise
How Robust Is "Socially Robust Knowledge"? Peter Weingart 131
In Defense of Some Sweeping Claims about Socially Robust Knowledge Roger Strand 146
Third Wave Science Studies: Toward a History and Philosophy of Expertise Christopher Hamlin 160
The Exigencies of Research Funding: Epistemic Values and Economic Benefit
The Community of Science James Robert Brown 189
Science in the Grip of the Economy: On the Epistemic Impact of the Commercialization of Research Martin Carrier 217
Promoting Disinterestedness or Making Use of Bias? Interests and Moral Obligation in Commercialized Research Matthias Adam 235