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Challenge of Third World Development / Edition 6

Challenge of Third World Development / Edition 6

by Howard Handelman
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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900205791230
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 02/19/2010
Series: Alternative eText Formats Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Howard Handelman is Emeritus Professor at the University of Wisconsin, USA.

Table of Contents

Preface xv

Chapter 1 Understanding Underdevelopment 1

Third World Commonalities: The Nature of Underdevelopment 2

Economic Underdevelopment 3

Social Underdevelopment 7

Political Underdevelopment 11

Some Relationships between the Components of Development 13

The Causes of Underdevelopment 15

Modernization Theory and the Importance of Cultural Values 15

Dependency Theory: The Core and the Periphery 19

Modernization and Dependency Theories Compared 21

Contemporary Perspectives 22

How Much (or How Little) Progress Has Been Made? 25

Discussion Questions 26

Notes 26

Chapter 2 Democratic Change and the Change to Democracy 28

Democracy Defined 30

Democratic Transition and Consolidation 32

Authoritarian Beginnings 33

Justifying Authoritarian Rule 34

The Third Wave and Its Effect on the Third World 36

International Causes and Consequences of the Third Wave 38

The Prerequisites of Democracy in Individual Countries 40

Social and Economic Modernization 40

Class Structure 41

Political Culture 43

The Curse of Oil Wealth 47

How Do Democracies Perform? Public Policy Compared 48

Democratic Consolidation 50

Improving the Quality of Democracy 51

Conclusion 53

Discussion Questions 55

Notes 55

Chapter 3 Religion and Politics 58

The Meeting of Church and State 59

Great Religions of the Third World 60

Religion, Modernity, and Secularization 61

Structural and Theological Bases of Church-State Relations 64

Islam 64

Catholicism 65

Hinduism and Buddhism 66

Religious Fundamentalism and Islamism 67

Defining and Explaining Fundamentalism 68

Fundamentalists: Radical and Conservative 69

The Iranian Revolution: Radical Islamism as a Reaction to Western-Style Modernization 70

Al Qaeda and Militant Islamism 73

Islamist Terrorists in Western Europe: A New Frontier 78

Turkey and Moderate Islamism 79

The Strengthening of Moderate Islam 83

The Progressive Catholic Church 83

The Future of Religion and Politics in the Developing World 86

Conclusion: Religion and Democracy 88

Discussion Questions 90

Notes 91

Chapter 4 The Politics of Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflict 94

Defining Ethnicity 97

Ethnic and State Boundaries 99

Types of Ethnic-Cultural Divisions 100

Nationality 100

Tribe 102

Race 104

Religion 106

Dependency, Modernization, and Ethnic Conflict 113

Levels of Interethnic Conflict 115

Relative Harmony 115

Uneasy Balance 115

Enforced Hierarchy (Ethnic Dominance) 117

Systematic Violence 118

Outcomes and Resolutions 119

Power Sharing: Federalism and Consociationalism 119

Secession 121

Outside Intervention 122

Outside Intervention in Iraq: The Effect of the U.S. Occupation on Kurdish Autonomy 126

Settlement through Exhaustion 127

Toward a Peaceful Resolution of Conflict 127

Conclusion: Ethnic Pluralism and Democracy 128

Discussion Questions 130

Notes 130

Chapter 5 Women and Development 133

The Political and Socioeconomic Status of Third World Women 135

Modernization and the Economic Status of Women 138

Women in the Economy: Rural and Urban 139

Women and Politics 142

Women's Political Activism at the Grass Roots 143

Women as National Political Leaders 145

Reserved Seats and Quotas: Female Representation in Parliament and the Cabinet 149

Women and Revolutionary Change 155

The Status of Women: The Roles of Modernization, Globalization, and Regime Type 158

Conclusion: Democracy and the Role of Women in Society 160

Discussion Questions 163

Notes 163

Chapter 6 Agrarian Reform and the Politics of Rural Change 166

Rural Class Structures 167

Peasant Politics 168

The Politics of Agrarian Reform 171

Patterns of Land Concentration 172

The Case for Agrarian Reform 173

Types of Agrarian Reform 175

Externally Imposed Reform 176

Revolutionary Transformation 177

Moderate Reformism 179

The Limits of Agrarian Reform 181

Other Approaches and Issues 184

Crop Pricing 184

Integrated Rural Development 185

Conclusion: Democracy and Rural Reform 186

Discussion Questions 188

Notes 188

Chapter 7 Rapid Urbanization and the Politics of the Urban Poor 191

The Third World's Urban Explosion 191

The Political Consequences of Urban Growth 195

The Search for Employment 195

The Urban Poor's Struggle for Housing 199

Public Housing and the Role of the State 200

Spontaneous Housing 202

Sites-and-Services Programs 203

The Problem of Urban Crime 204

The Politics of the Urban Poor: Conflicting Images 206

Forms of Political Expression among the Urban Poor 210

Individual Political Behavior 210

Collective Goals: Housing and Urban Services 211

Radical Political Behavior 214

Conclusion: Future Urban Growth and Democratic Politics 215

Discussion Questions 216

Notes 216

Chapter 8 Revolutionary Change 219

Defining Revolution 220

Underlying Causes of Revolution 222

Inexorable Historical Forces 222

Regime Decay 223

Challenges from Below 225

Causes of Revolution: A Summary 228

Levels of Popular Support 230

Peasants as Revolutionaries 232

Why Peasants Rebel 233

Which Peasants Rebel 233

Revolutionary Leadership 234

Revolutionaries in Power 236

Conclusion: Revolutionary Change and Democracy 239

Discussion Questions 242

Notes 242

Chapter 9 Soldiers and Politics 244

The Causes of Military Intervention 246

The Nature of the Armed Forces 246

The Nature of Civil Society 247

Progressive Soldiers and Military Conservatives 250

The Types and Goals of Military Regimes 253

Personalistic Regimes 253

Institutional Military Regimes 254

The Accomplishment and Failures of Military Regimes 259

Combating Corruption 259

Defending Military Interests 260

Patterns in Military Spending 261

Establishing Stability 264

Improving the Economy 266

Military Withdrawal from Politics 267

New Roles for the Armed Forces 270

Improved Civil-Military Relationships 271

Conclusion: Democracy and the Military 272

Discussion Questions 273

Notes 273

Chapter 10 The Political Economy of Third World Development 276

The Role of the State 277

The Command Economy 278

Latin American Statism 281

East Asia's Developmental State 284

The Neoclassical Ideal 286

Finding a Proper Role for the State 289

Industrialization Strategies 289

Import-Substituting Industrialization 290

Export-Oriented Industrialization 292

Growth with Equity 293

Economic Development and the Environment 295

The Costs of Growth 296

Environmental Decay as a Third World Problem 296

Third World Environmental Decay and Global Warming: A Global Problem 297

The Search for Sustainable Development 298

Some Signs of Progress 300

Finding the Right Mix 302

The Effects of Globalization on Developing Nations 302

Conclusion: Democracy and Economic Development 307

Discussion Questions 308

Notes 308

Glossary 311

Index 320


Less than a month before this manuscript was sent off to Prentice Hall, America was traumatized by the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.C. Suddenly, the country was saturated with more media coverage of Third World terrorism, Islamic fundamentalism, and civil war in the previously obscure country of Afghanistan than anyone could have imagined. But even before the events of September 11, 2001, Americans had increasingly, and often begrudgingly, been exposed to news coverage of the world's less developed nations. Afghanistan, Iraq, Rwanda, the Palestinian West Bank, Indonesia, and Mexico now occupy prominent positions on the evening news previously reserved for countries such as Russia, Japan, and Britain. Yet despite their increased importance, phenomena such as Islamic fundamentalism, ethnic warfare, and democratic transitions in developing nations remain shrouded in mystery and misunderstanding for most Americans.

For want of a better term, this book refers to the more than 150 disparate, developing nations as the Third World (the term is defined in Chapter 1). They include desperately poor countries such as Afghanistan and Ethiopia and rapidly developing industrial powers such as South Korea and Taiwan. Some, like Trinidad and Costa Rica, are stable democracies; others, such as Myanmar and Syria, suffer under highly repressive dictatorships. All of them, however, share at least some of the aspects of political, economic, and social underdevelopment that are analyzed in this book.

No text is capable of fully examining the political and economic systems of so many highly diverse countries. Instead, we will look for common issues, problems, and potentialsolutions. We start in Chapter 1 by exploring the nature of political and economic underdevelopment, and we then analyze the leading explanatory theories. The next chapter discusses what has been arguably the most important political change in world politics during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries—the wave of democratic change that has swept over the developing nations of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East (as well as the former Soviet bloc of nations and southern Europe).

Because these often still-fragile transitions from authoritarian to democratic government are potentially so important, most of the chapters that follow contain discussion of how democratization is likely to influence issues such as the level of ethnic conflict, the role of women in the political system, and the proper path to economic development.

Chapters 3 to 5 on Religion and Politics, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Conflict, and Women and Development analyze broad social forces and gender issues that have often divided developing nations. Chapters 6 to 7 on Rural Change and Urbanization discuss the specific problems and challenges that many countries face in those two sectors of society. Next, Chapters 8 to 9 on Revolutionary Change and Soldiers and Politics consider the records of each of those regime types (e.g., revolutionary governments in China and Cuba and military regimes in Brazil and Indonesia) as alternative models of political and economic development. Finally, Chapter 10, dealing with Third World Political Economies, compares alternative paths to economic development and evaluates the relative effectiveness of each.

It is easy to despair when considering the tremendous obstacles facing most Third World nations and the failures of political leadership that so many of them have endured. Unfortunately, many of us in the First World have suffered from "compassion fatigue" or have become cynical about cooperative efforts with Third World countries. The assaults on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001 and the ensuing war with Afghanistan have reinforced many people's perception of the less developed nations (LDCs) as poor beyond redemption and saturated with fanaticism and authoritarian beliefs. Yet the recent trend toward democratization in the developing world (most notably in Latin America), the increased stability that has come to southern Africa, and the enormous economic growth that has taken place in parts of East and Southeast Asia, all provide new bases for hope. It is incumbent upon the West's next generation of citizens and leaders to renew efforts to understand the challenge of Third World development.

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