The Changing Definition of Masculinity is an outgrowth of four years of developing and teaching the course "Social Factors in Male Personality" at Ohio State University, Columbus. This volume reflects, in addition to my thoughts and feelings about what should be discussed in a sex-roles course taught from a male per spective, the thoughts, feelings, and knowledge of scores of students, col leagues, and friends. These are persons who either have taken the course or discussed with me appropriate material to be included in such a course and/or book. Chapter 1, for example, is influenced greatly by the work of Eliza beth and Joseph Pleck's The American Man, dealing with the periods of masculinity in the United States up to 1965. The chapter also deals with emerging meanings of masculinity after 1965, and female and male responses to these meanings. The second chapter is devoted to male sex-role socialization and examines the roles of biology and environment in male socialization. It is also concerned with agents of male socialization and with male assumption of such sex-role traits as dominance, competitiveness, the work ethic, and violence. In Chapter 2, I also propose two general mas culine roles frequently assumed by American males which mayor may not be race-specific-the White masculine role and the Black masculine role.
Table of Contents
1. Meanings of Masculinity in the United States.- Three Basic Sex-Role Concepts.- Sex.- Gender.- Gender Identity.- Traditional Meanings of Masculinity.- The Agrarian Patriarchal Period.- The Commercial Period.- The Strenuous Life Period.- The Companionate Providing Period.- After 1965.- The Women’s Movement.- The Gay Liberation Movement.- The Men’s Movement.- The “Moral Majority”.- Emerging Meanings of Masculinity.- Women and Masculinity.- Women and Households.- Women and Income.- Female Responses to Traditional Masculinity.- Men and New Definitions of Masculinity.- 2. Socialization and the Male Role.- Biology and Male Socialization.- Environment and Male Socialization.- Agents of Male Socialization.- The Family.- Peer Groups.- The Mass Media.- Other Societal Institutions and Male Socialization.- Males and the Assumption of Masculine Roles.- The White Masculine Role and Males.- Male Dominance.- Male Competition.- The Work Ethic.- Male Violence.- Comments about the White Masculine Role.- The Black Masculine Role and Males.- Black Male Dominance and Competition.- Black Males, Work, and Violence.- Comments about the Black Masculine Role.- Male Socialization in Retrospect.- 3. The Male Self.- Explanations of the Male Self.- The Freudian Male Self.- The Life-Cycle Approach to the Male Self.- The CognitiveDevelopmental Approach to the Male Self.- The Social Learning Approach to the Male Self.- The Male Self as a Dynamic Process: A Perspective and Consequences.- Males Against Themselves.- 4. Male Social Perception.- >Male Perceptual Organization of Social Worlds.- Male Knowledge of Role Options.- Male Mental States.- Male Role Making/Playing Strategies.- Male Personal Communication Mechanisms.- Males and Nonverbal Sensitivity.- Consequences of Male Perception.- Males Perceiving Females: Impression Formation.- Male Impression Management: Manipulating the Perceptions of Females.- Males Perceiving Males: Impression Formation.- Male Impression Management: Manipulating the Perceptions of Other Males.- The Implication of Male Perception for Ongoing Social Interaction.- 5. Male Social Roles.- Men in Marriage.- The Male Role in Marriage and Sources of Change.- A Contemporary View of Men in Marriage.- Males As Parents.- Why Men Don’t Rear Children.- Men As Fathers Some Time Ago.- Men As Fathers in the Recent Past.- Men As Fathers Now.- Fathers’ Influence on Children’s Behaviors.- Men’s Friends.- Men At Work.- A Modified Definition of the Male Role: Beyond Androgyny.- Determining Male Gender.- 6. Male Interpersonal Attraction.- Varieties of Male Interpersonal Attraction.- Male Liking and Male Friendship.- Male Respect.- Male Love.- Why Men Are Attracted to Others: What Men Want.- What Men Like in Other Men.- What Men Like in Women.- Characteristics in Men that Attract Others: What Women Like Men.- 7. Themes in Male Sexuality.- Men and Sex.- Patterns of Men’s Heterosexual Involvement.- Women’s Freedom and Men’s Sex.- Men’s Dominance and Men’s Sex.- The Socialized Penis and Men’s Sex.- Men and Homosexuality.- Homosexuality and Men’s Power.- Diversity Among Gay Men.- The Politics of Gay Men’s Sex.- Sexism and Gay Men.- Racism and Gay Men.- Ageism and Gay Men.- Ambisexual Men.- Self-Labeled Ambisexual Men.- Predominantly Gay Ambisexual Men.- Predominantly Heterosexual Ambisexual Men.- Being Married and Ambisexual.- The “Silent Killer” and the Gay Community.- Asexual Men.- Males, Sex, and Violence.- 8. The Male Sex-Role in the Future: Will Prince Charming Survive?.- An Excursion into Fairyland.- The Implications of MaleFemale Interaction for Changes in the Male Sex Role.- White Males and White Females.- Black Males and Black Females.- Interracial MaleFemale Relationships.- The Implications of Men’s Interaction With Men for Changes the Male Sex-Role.- The Women’s Movement.- The Economic Crisis in the United States.- Proliferation of Information About the Male Sex Role.- The Decreasing Significance of Race in Men’s Social Interaction.- Men’s Responses to Sex-Role Changes.- The Classical Man.- Routine Masculinist Men.- Anomic Men.- Humanist Men.- Career Paths Men Take Toward Sex-Role Equality.- Prince Charming’s Emerging Form.- References.