The Chemistry and Application of Dyes

The Chemistry and Application of Dyes

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468477177
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 04/10/2012
Series: Topics in Applied Chemistry
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990
Pages: 430
Product dimensions: 7.01(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: The Evolution of Present-Day Dye Technology.- I. Background.- II. The Historical Development of Synthetic Dyes.- A. The Early History up to 1865.- B. Developments in Dye Chemistry from 1865 to Modern Times.- III. The Development of Color and Constitution Theory.- References.- 2. Classification of Dyes by Chemical Structure.- I. Introduction.- II. Azo Dyes.- A. Basic structure.- B. Synthesis.- C. Tautomerism.- 1. Azo/Hydrazone Tautomerism.- 2. Azo/Imino Tautomerism.- 3. Azonium/Ammonium Tautomerism.- D. Metallized Azo Dyes.- E. Carbocyclic Azo Dyes.- F. Heterocyclic Azo Dyes.- III. Anthraquinone Dyes.- A. Basic structure.- B. Synthesis.- C. Tautomerism/Metal Complexes.- D. Properties.- IV. Benzodifuranone Dyes.- V. Polycyclic Aromatic Carbonyl Dyes.- VI. Indigoid Dyes.- VII. Polymethine and Related Dyes.- A. Azacarbocyanines.- B. Hemicyanines.- C. Diazahemicyanines.- VIII. Styryl Dyes.- IX. Di- and Tri-Aryl Carbonium and Related Dyes :.- X. Phthalocyanines.- XI. Quinophthalones.- XII. Sulfur Dyes.- XIII. Nitro and Nitroso Dyes.- XIV. Miscellaneous Dyes.- XV. Summary.- References.- 3. Dyes for Cellulosic Fibers.- I. Introduction.- II. Fiber Reactive Dyes.- A. Historical Development.- B. Reactive Systems.- C. Chromogens in Reactive Dyes.- 1. Azo Reactive Dyes.- 2. Anthraquinone Reactive Dyes.- 3. Phthalocyanine Reactive Dyes.- 4. Triphenodioxazine and Formazan Reactive Dyes.- III. Direct Dyes.- A. Azo Direct Dyes.- 1. Monoazo Dyes.- 2. Disazo Dyes.- 3. Trisazo Dyes.- 4. Metal Complex Dyes.- 5. Mixed Chromophore Dyes.- B. Aftertreatments.- C. Triphenodioxazine dyes.- IV. Azoic Dyes.- V. Vat Dyes.- A. Anthraquinone Vat Dyes.- B. Fused Ring Polycyclic Vat Dyes.- C. Indigoid Vat Dyes.- VI. Sulfur Dyes.- A. Sulfurized Vat Dyes.- VII. Syntheses of Reactive Dyes.- A. Analysis of Dyes and Intermediates.- B. Methods of Diazotization.- C. Coupling Methods.- D. Synthetic Examples of Reactive Dyes.- VIII. Synthesis of Direct Dyes.- A. Synthetic Examples of Direct Dyes.- IX. Synthesis of Vat Dyes.- A. Synthetic Examples of Vat Dyes.- X. Synthesis of Sulfur Dyes.- A. Synthetic Examples of Sulfur Dyes.- Acknowledgments.- References.- 4. Dyes for Polyester Fibers.- I. Introduction.- II. Anthraquinone Dyes.- A. Preparative Index.- B. Discussion.- III. Methine Dyes.- A. Preparative Index.- B. Discussion.- IV. Nitrodiphenylamine Dyes.- A. Preparative Index.- B. Discussion.- V. Azo Dyes.- A. Preparative Index.- B. Discussion.- 1. Diazonium Components.- 2. Coupling Components.- 3. Dyes.- VI. Miscellaneous Classes.- A. Preparative Index.- B. Discussion.- References.- 5. Dyes for Polyacrylonitrile.- I. Introduction.- II. Pendant Cationic Dyes.- A. Yellow dyes.- 1. Miscellaneous Chromogens.- 2. Azopyridone Dyes.- B. Red Dyes.- C. Blue Dyes.- 1. AzoDyes.- 2. Anthraquinone Dyes.- D. Miscellaneous Cationic Groups.- III. Delocalized Cationic Dyes.- A. Comparison with Pendant Dyes.- B. Protonated Azo Dyes.- C. Yellow Dyes.- 1. Azacarbocyanines.- 2. Diazacarbocyanines.- 3. Triazacarbocyanines.- D. Red Dyes.- 1. Hemicyanines.- 2. Diazahemicyanines.- E. Blue Dyes.- 1. Oxazines.- 2. Thiazines.- 3. Triphenylmethanes.- 4. Naphtholactams.- 5. Diazahemicyanines.- IV. Synthesis.- A. Pendant Cationic Dyes.- 1. Azopyridone Yellow.- 2. Azobenzene Red.- 3. Anthraquinone Blue.- B. Delocalized Cationic Dyes.- 1. Azacarbocyanine Yellow.- 2. Diazacarbocyanine Yellow.- 3. Triazacarbocyanine Yellow.- 4. Hemicyanine Red.- 5. Diazahemicyanine Red.- 6. Oxazine Blue.- 7. Triphenylmethane Green.- 8. Naphtholactam Blue.- 9. Diazahemicyanine Blue.- V. Summary.- References.- 6. Dyes for Polyamide Fibers.- I. Introduction.- II. Dyes for Wool and Other Animal Fibers.- A. Historical.- B. Acid Dyes.- 1. Azo Dyes.- 2. Chrome Mordant Dyes.- 3. Metallized Dyes.- a. 1:1 Complexes.- b. 2:1 Complexes.- 4. Anthraquinone Acid Dyes.- 5. Miscellaneous Dyes.- a. Vat Dyes.- b. Xanthene Dyes.- c. Triphenylmethane Dyes.- d. Nitro Dyes.- e. Reactive Dyes.- f. Phthalocyanine Dyes.- III. Dyes for Nylon.- IV. Synthesis of Dyes.- A. CI Acid Yellow 19.- B. CI Acid Red 57.- C. CI Acid Orange 67.- D. CI Acid Yellow 76.- E. CI Acid Orange 3.- F. CI Mordant Yellow 8.- G. CI Mordant Red 7.- H. CI Mordant Orange 6.- I. CI Acid Red 249.- J. CI Acid Black 60.- K. CI Acid Blue 129.- L. CI Acid Green 25.- M. Coumarin Acid Dye.- N. Phthalocyanine Acid Dye.- References.- 7. Application of Dyes.- I. Introduction.- A. Classification of Dyes and Pigments.- B. Textile Fibers.- 1. Mass Pigmentation.- 2. Gel Dyeing.- 3. Loose State Dyeing.- 4. Yarn Dyeing.- 5. Fabric Dyeing.- 6. Garment Dyeing.- C. Dyeing Methods.- 1. Immersion (Exhaustion) Methods.- 2. Impregnation-Fixation Methods.- D. Fastness of Dyed Textiles.- II. Dyeing of Wool.- A. Nonmetallized Acid Dyes.- 1. Azo.- 2. Anthraquinoid.- 3. Triphenylmethane.- 4. Dissolving the Dyes.- 5. Dyeing Behavior.- B. Mordant Dyes.- 1. Anthraquinone.- 2. Azo.- 3. Triphenylmethane.- 4. Xanthene.- 5. Dissolving the Dyes.- 6. Dyeing Behavior.- C. Metal-Complex or Premetallized Dyes.- 1. Dissolving the Dyes.- 2. 1:1 Metal-Complex (Acid Dyeing Premetallized) Dyes.- 3. 2:1 Metal-Complex (Neutral Dyeing Premetallized) Dyes.- D. Reactive Dyes.- 1. Dissolving the Dyes.- 2. Dyeing Behavior.- E. Dyeing Shrink-Resist Treated Wool.- 1. Reactive Dyes.- 2. Mordant Dyes.- 3. 2:1 Premetallized Dyes.- III. Dyeing of Cellulosic Fibers.- A. Direct Dyes.- 1. Azo.- 2. Stilbene.- 3. Phthalocyanine.- 4. Dioxazine.- 5. Miscellaneous Dyes.- 6. Dissolving the Dyes.- 7. Dyeing Behavior.- 8. Aftertreatments.- B. Vat Dyes.- 1. Indigoid and Thioindigoid.- 2. Anthraquinone.- 3. Dyeing Behavior.- 4. Dyeing Auxiliaries.- 5. Oxidation.- 6. Soaping.- 7. Acidification.- 8. Dispersing the Dyes.- 9. Leuco Dyeing.- 10. Pigmentation Processes.- 11. Solubilized Vat Dyes.- 12. Sulfurized Vat Dyes.- 13. Dyeing with Indigo.- C. Sulfur Dyes.- 1. CI Sulfur Dyes.- 2. CI Leuco Sulfur Dyes.- 3. CI Solubilized Sulfur Dyes.- 4. CI Condense Sulfur Dyes.- 5. Dyeing Behavior.- 6. Batchwise Dyeing Processes.- 7. Semicontinuous Processes.- 8. Continuous Processes.- D. Azoic Colorants.- 1. Coupling Components.- 2. Diazo Components.- 3. Azoic Compositions.- 4. Dyeing Behavior.- 5. Application of Coupling Components.- 6. Removal of Surplus Coupling Component.- 7. Development.- 8. Aftertreatment.- E. Reactive Dyes.- 1. Dissolving the Dyes.- 2. Dyeing Behavior.- 3. Aftertreatment.- IV. Dyeing of Secondary Acetate and Triacetate Fibers.- A. Disperse Dyes.- 1. Azo.- 2. Anthraquinone.- 3. Nitrodiphenylamine.- 4. Styryl.- 5. Dispersing the Dyes.- 6. Dyeing Behavior.- 7. High-Temperature Dyeing.- 8. Carrier Dyeing.- 9. Barré Effects.- 10. Dyeing Auxiliaries.- 11. Aftertreatment.- 12. Dyeing Processes.- B. Azoic Colorants.- C. Vat Dyes.- D. Other Dyes.- V. Dyeing of Polyester Fibers.- A. Disperse Dyes.- 1. Dispersing the Dyes.- 2. Dyeing Behavior.- 3. Barré Effects.- 4. Oligomers.- 5. Dyeing Auxiliaries.- 6. Aftertreatment.- 7. Batchwise Dyeing.- 8. Semicontinuous Dyeing.- 9. Continuous Dyeing.- B. Azoic Colorants.- C. Vat Dyes.- D. Dyeing of Modified Polyester Fibers.- 1. Dyeing of Deep-Dyeing Polyester Fibers.- 2. Dyeing of Noncarrier Dyeing Polyester Fibers.- 3. Dyeing of Anionic-Modified PET Fibers.- 4. Dyeing of Differential-Dyeing PET Fibers.- VI. Dyeing of Polyamide Fibers.- A. Nonmetallized Acid Dyes.- 1. Dissolving the Dyes.- 2. Dyeing Behavior.- 3. Aftertreatment.- B. Disperse Dyes.- C. Mordant Dyes.- D. Premetallized Acid Dyes.- 1. 1:1 Metal-Complex Dyes.- 2. 2:1 Metal-Complex Dyes.- E. Direct Dyes.- F. Reactive Dyes.- G. Dyeing of Modified Nylons.- VII. Dyeing of Acrylic Fibers.- A. Basic Dyes.- 1. Positive Charge Delocalized over the Dye Cation.- 2. Positive Charge Localized on an Ammonium Group.- 3. Dissolving the Dyes.- 4. Dyeing Behavior.- 5. Aftertreatment.- 6. Cooling of the Dyebath.- 7. Exhaustion Dyeing.- 8. Continuous Dyeing.- 9. Migrating Cationic Dyes.- B. Disperse Dyes.- C. Dyeing Modacrylic Fibers.- References.- 8. Nontextile Applications of Dyes.- I. Introduction.- II. Dyes for Displays.- III. Laser Dyes.- IV. Dyes for Optical Data Storage.- V. Organic Photoconductors.- VI. Nonlinear Optics.- VII. Conclusion.- References.- Index of Dyes.

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