The Climate of China

The Climate of China

by Manfred Domrïs, Gongbing Peng

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642733352
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 12/06/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
Pages: 361
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Aims and Concept of the Study.- 1.2 Climate Data.- 1.3 Review of Climate Studies on China.- 2 Controlling Factors of the Climate.- 2.1 Latitude, Longitude and Location.- 2.2 Topography and Landforms.- 2.3 Distribution of Land and Sea and Nature of the Underlying Ground.- 2.4 Seasons.- 3 Circulation.- 3.1 Seasonal Pressure Distribution at Sea Level.- 3.2 Seasonally Prevailing Winds and Air Masses.- 3.3 Winter and Summer Monsoon.- 3.3.1 Characteristics of the Monsoon in General.- 3.3.2 Onset and Duration of the Winter Monsoon.- 3.3.3 Periods of Active and Weak Winter Monsoon.- 3.3.4 Damage Due to Strong Cold Outbreaks of Winter Monsoon.- 3.3.5 Onset and Duration of the Summer Monsoon.- 3.3.6 Some Characteristics of the Summer Monsoon.- 3.4 Frontology.- 3.4.1 Mean Front Position in January and July.- 3.4.2 The Stationary Fronts in February and March as well as in the Pre-Typhoon Season in South China.- 3.4.3 Some Characteristics of the Mei-Yu Front.- 3.5 The Transient Disturbances.- 3.5.1 The Upper Westerly Troughs in the Westerlies.- 3.5.2 Extratropical Cyclones and Anticyclones.- 3.5.3 Typhoons.- 4 Temperature.- 4.1 Mean Annual Air Temperature Distribution.- 4.2 Mean Seasonal Temperature Distribution.- 4.3 Annual Range and Annual Variation of Temperature.- 4.4 Onset and End of Certain Limited Temperatures and Their Duration.- 4.4.1 Mean Daily Air Temperature ? 0°C.- 4.4.2 Mean Daily Air Temperature ? 10 °C.- 4.4.3 Maximum Daily Air Temperature ? 35 °C.- 4.4.4 Other Extreme Limited Temperatures.- 4.5 Vertical Distribution of Temperature.- 4.6 Comparison of Temperature at the Same Latitude.- 4.7 Diurnal Range of Temperature.- 4.8 Interannual Variability of Temperature.- 4.8.1 Variability of Annual Mean Temperature.- 4.8.2 Variability of Monthly Mean Temperatures.- 4.9 Historical-Climatic Change of Temperature During the last 5,000, 500 and 100 Years.- 5 Precipitation.- 5.1 Mean Annual Precipitation Distribution.- 5.2 Mean Seasonal Precipitation Distribution.- 5.3 Annual Variation of Precipitation.- 5.3.1 Specific Precipitation Types and Their Distribution.- 5.3.2 Variation of Wet and Dry Months over Space and Time.- 5.3.3 Summer Precipitation.- 5.4 Interannual Precipitation Variability.- 5.4.1 Variability of Annual Precipitation.- 5.4.2 Variability of Monthly Precipitation.- 5.4.3 Variability of Annual and Monthly Precipitation at Beijing.- 5.5 Precipitation Frequency Expressed in Rainy Days.- 5.6 Precipitation Intensity.- 5.7 Rainstorms and Certain Events of Heavy Rainfall.- 5.8 Diurnal Variation of Precipitation.- 5.9 Influence of Topography and Elevation on Precipitation.- 5.9.1 Influence of the Exposition of Slopes on Precipitation.- 5.9.2 Effect of Elevation on Prefipitation.- 5.10 Historical Change of Precipitation.- 5.11 Snow.- 5.11.1 Mean Length of Snow Cover Period.- 5.11.2 Number of Snowfall Days.- 5.11.3 Maximum Depth of Snow.- 5.11.4 Altitude of the Snow Line.- 6 Cloudiness and Sunshine.- 6.1 Mean Annual Cloudiness and January and July Amount.- 6.2 Sunshine.- 6.2.1 Annual Sunshine Duration.- 6.2.2 Sunshine Duration in January and July and Annual Variation.- 6.3 Global Radiation.- 6.4 Fog.- 7 Surface Wind.- 7.1 Mean and Extreme Wind Velocities.- 7.2 Local Wind Systems.- 7.2.1 Mountain and Valley Breezes.- 7.2.2 Land and Sea Breezes, Lake Breeze.- 7.2.3 Plateau Monsoon.- 7.2.4 Local Dry and Hot Winds.- 8 Climate Classification and Division of China.- 8.1 General Objectives and Fundamentals of Climate Regionalization.- 8.2 China Within Global Climate Classifications.- 8.3 National Climate Classifications of China.- 8.4 Climate Division of China According to Huang Bing-wei (1986).- 9 Climate Zones of China.- 9.1 Cold Temperate Zone (I).- 9.2 Middle Temperate Zone (II).- 9.3 Warm Temperate Zone (III).- 9.4 Northern Subtropical Zone (IV).- 9.5 Middle Subtropical Zone (V).- 9.6 Southern Subtropical Zone (VI).- 9.7 Peripheral Tropical Zone (VII).- 9.8 Middle Tropical Zone (VIII).- 9.9 Southern Tropical Zone (IX).- 9.10 Alpine Plateau Zone (H0).- 9.11 Subalpine Plateau tone (HI).- 9.12 Temperate Plateau Zone (HII).- Appendix: Climate Tables.- References.

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