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The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America / Edition 4

The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America / Edition 4

by Samuel Walker, Cassia Spohn, Miriam DeLone

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ISBN-10: 0534624464

ISBN-13: 9780534624460

Pub. Date: 08/07/2006

Publisher: Cengage Learning

Comprehensive and balanced, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE is the definitive book on current research and theories of racial, ethnic, and gender discrimination within America's criminal justice system. The authors synthesize the best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, police practices, court processing and sentencing, the death


Comprehensive and balanced, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE is the definitive book on current research and theories of racial, ethnic, and gender discrimination within America's criminal justice system. The authors synthesize the best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, police practices, court processing and sentencing, the death penalty, and correctional programs giving your students the facts and theoretical foundation they need to make their own informed decisions about discrimination in the system.
Uniquely unbiased, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE makes every effort to incorporate discussion of all major race groups found in the United States.

Product Details

Cengage Learning
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
9.10(w) x 6.40(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

1Race, Ethnicity, and Crime1
The Scope of This Book3
Goals of the Chapter5
The Colors of America: Racial and Ethnic Categories5
Racial and Ethnic Categories5
The Politics of Racial and Ethnic Labels11
The Quality of Criminal Justice Data on Race and Ethnicity13
The Geography of Racial and Ethnic Justice14
Disparity versus Discrimination15
The Discrimination-Disparity Continuum18
A Theoretical Perspective on Race, Ethnicity, and Crime19
Alternative Theories20
Discussion Questions21
2Victims and Offenders25
Goals of the Chapter26
A Broader Picture of the Crime Victim26
The National Crime Victimization Survey27
Household Victimization28
Personal Victimization30
Trends in Household and Personal Victimization33
Lifetime Likelihood of Victimization34
Homicide Victimization Rates35
Summary: A More Comprehensive Picture of the Crime Victim36
Picture of the Typical Offender37
Official Arrest Statistics37
Perceptions of Offenders by Victims43
Self-Report Surveys47
Summary: A Picture of the Typical Criminal Offender50
Crime as an Intraracial Event50
The National Crime Victimization Survey51
UCR Homicide Reports51
Summary: Crime as an Intraracial Event52
Crime as an Interracial (Hate) Event53
Ethnic Youth Gangs54
Gang Myths and Realities55
Varieties of Ethnic Gangs57
Discussion Questions60
3Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime65
Goals of the Chapter65
Economic Inequality66
Poverty Status70
Human Capital and Social Capital70
Progress, Stagnation, or Regression? The Debate over the Status of African Americans71
The Debate over the Underclass73
Community Social Structure75
Residential Segregation75
Theoretical Perspectives on Inequality and Crime79
Social Strain Theory79
Differential Association Theory80
Social Disorganization Theory81
Culture Conflict Theory82
Conflict Theory82
Routine Activity Theory83
The Limits of Current Theories84
Inequality and Social Reform84
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movement85
The Attack on Economic Inequality87
Discussion Questions89
4Justice on the Street?93
Unequal Justice?93
Conflicting Evidence94
Goals of the Chapter95
A Contextual Approach95
A Long History of Conflict97
The Police and a Changing America97
Public Attitudes About the Police98
Policing Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities100
The African American Community100
The Hispanic Community101
The Native American Community101
The Middle Eastern Community102
Special Issue: Enforcing Federal Immigration Laws103
Police Use of Deadly Force103
Disparity versus Discrimination in Police Shootings105
Controlling Police Shootings105
"Police Brutality": Police use of Physical Force106
Discrimination in Arrests?109
Zero-Tolerance Policing110
Traffic Stops: Racial Profiling111
Defining Racial Profiling111
Profiling Contexts112
The Data on Traffic Stops112
Interpreting Traffic Stop Data113
Controlling Bias in Traffic Stops114
A Success Story: The Customs Bureau115
Street Stops and Frisks116
Special Issue: Stereotyping and Routine Police Work118
Verbal Abuse119
Police Officer Attitudes and Behavior120
Minorities and Police Corruption122
Police-Community Relations Programs122
Citizen Complaints Against the Police124
Citizen Oversight of the Police126
Police Employment Practices126
Trends in Racial Minority Employment127
The Law of Employment Discrimination129
Discrimination in Assignment130
The Impact of Diversity131
Minorities as Supervisors and Chief Executives134
Discussion Questions135
5The Courts143
The Situation Today145
Goals of the Chapter147
Decisions Regarding Counsel and Bail147
Racial Minorities and the Right to Counsel148
Racial Minorities and Bail Decision Making154
Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisions162
Prosecutors' Charging Decisions162
Race and Plea Bargaining Decisions170
Discussion Questions173
6Justice on the Bench?178
Goals of the Chapter180
Selection of the Jury Pool180
Techniques for Increasing Racial Diversity183
The Peremptory Challenge: Racial Profiling in the Courtroom?185
The Supreme Court and the Peremptory Challenge: From Swain to Batson186
Playing the "Race Card" in a Criminal Trial190
Race-Conscious Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Courtroom?195
Discussion Questions198
7Race and Sentencing202
Goals of the Chapter203
Racial Disparity in Sentencing203
Four Explanations for Racial Disparities in Sentencing204
Empirical Research on Race and Sentencing207
Reviews of Recent Research207
When Does Race Matter?211
Sentencing in Three Urban Jurisdictions: Direct and Indirect Race Effects211
Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Age, and Employment: A Volatile Combination?213
Differential Treatment of Interracial and Intraracial Sexual Assault218
The Effect of Race on Sentencing for Various Types of Crimes222
Sentencing and the War on Drugs225
Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a "Just" Punishment System231
Race/Ethnicity and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines238
Race/Ethnicity and State Sentencing Reforms239
Have Sentencing Guidelines Increased the Likelihood of Racial Discrimination?241
Discussion Questions244
8The Color of Death250
Goals of the Chapter251
The Constitutionality of the Death Penalty251
Furman v. Georgia252
Post-Furman Decisions253
Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment255
Race and the Death Penalty: The Empirical Evidence257
Statistical Evidence of Racial Disparity258
Pre-Furman Studies262
Post-Furman Studies267
Race and the Federal Capital Sentencing Process272
Explanations for Disparate Treatment275
McCleskey v. Kemp: The Supreme Court and Racial
Discrimination in the Application of the Death Penalty276
The Execution of Warren McCleskey280
The Aftermath of McCleskey282
The Death Penalty in the 21st Century283
The Movement to Reform the Death Penalty286
The Movement to Abolish the Death Penalty287
Discussion Questions290
9Corrections Versus College: Minorities in Society297
Goals of the Chapter298
The Incarcerated: Prison and Jail Populations298
Minority Overrepresentation298
Historical Trends301
Impact of the War on Drugs303
Incarceration Rates303
Jails and Minorities305
The Role of Jail305
Minority Overrepresentation305
Parole: Early Release from Prison306
Success and Failure on Parole307
Probation: A Case of Sentencing Discrimination?308
Perspectives on the Racial Distribution of Correctional Populations309
Adjustment to Prison312
Prison Gangs316
Women in Prison319
Discussion Questions320
10Minority Youth and Crime324
Goals of the Chapter325
Young Racial Minorities as Victims and Offenders325
Juveniles as Victims of Crime325
Juveniles as Offenders328
Juveniles of Color and the Police331
Race/Ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice System332
Race/Ethnicity and Juvenile Court Outcomes in Four Jurisdictions337
Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Court344
Explaining Disparate Treatment of Juvenile Offenders346
Juveniles Under Correctional Supervision348
Discussion Questions351
11The Color of Justice355
Race, Crime, and Justice356
Selected Bibliography360

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