How should democracies balance the hopes and constraints of their societies with the architecture of their constitutions and institutions to secure freedom, promote citizenship, and foster prosperity? In The Construction of Democracy, leading scholars from seven different countriesand key decision makers from eightcome together to analyze the dimensions of democratic design and draw not only practical but feasible recommendations.
Here citizens, politicians, and government officials offer valuable insight into the craft of politics with real examples of success and failures from some of the leading policy makers of our timeincluding the president of Portugal, former presidents of Brazil and Colombia, and a former prime minister of India. Drawing on the work of the Club of Madrid's Conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation, the contributors discuss building and sustaining a contemporary democratic state, strengthening pluralism and public participation, designing effective constitutions, confronting economic challenges for new democracies, and controlling corruption.
In a rare instance where the expertise of practical-minded scholars is melded with the experience of thoughtful policy makers, this volume offers much-needed insight to others seeking sensible and effective solutions.
Contributors: Carlos Blanco, minister for the reform of the state, Venezuela; Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former president of Brazil; Aníbal Cavaco Silva, president of Portugal; Antônio Octávio Cintra, the Research Service of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies; Rut Diamint, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires; Jorge I. Domínguez, Harvard University; Grzegorz Ekiert, Harvard University; César Gaviria, former president of Colombia; Anna Grzymala-Busse, University of Michigan; Inder Kumar Gujral, former prime minister of India; Anthony Jones, the Gorbachev Foundation of North America; Marcelo Barroso Lacombe, the Research Service of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies; José Luis Méndez, El Colegio de México; Andrew Richards, Instituto Juan March of the Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Ciencias Sociales, Madrid; Susan Rose-Ackerman, Yale University; Richard Simeon, University of Toronto; Luc Turgeon, University of Toronto.
About the Author
Jorge I. Domínguez is the Antonio Madero Professor of Mexican and Latin American Politics and Economics at Harvard University and an advisor to the Club of Madrid. He is the author and editor of several books, including Constructing Democratic Governance in Latin America, also by Johns Hopkins University Press. Anthony Jones is executive director of the Gorbachev Foundation of North America, on the Board of Directors of the Club of Madrid, an affiliate of the Center for European Studies at Harvard University, and associate professor of sociology at Northeastern University. He has authored and edited ten books.
Table of Contents
Macro Issues of Democratic Construction 1
Building and Sustaining a Contemporary Democratic State Jorge I. Dominguez Anthony Jones 3
Strengthening Pluralism and Public Participation in New Democracies Grzegorz Ekiert Anna Grzymala-Busse 20
Economic Challenges for the New Democracies Andrew Richards 45
Elected Institutions of the Democratic State 77
Constitutional Design and the Construction of Democracy: A Citizenship Regime Perspective Richard Simeon Luc Turgeon 79
Executive-Legislative Relations and Democratic Consolidation: A Review and Some Questions Antonio Octavio Cintra Marcelo Barroso Lacombe 103
Implementing the Policies of the Democratic State 121
Toward More Balanced Approaches in the Reform of the State Jose Luis Mendez 123
Military, Police, Politics, and Society: Does Latin America Have a Democratic Model? Rut Diamint 148
Controlling Corruption: Government Accountability, Business Ethics, and Sectoral Reform Susan Rose-Ackerman 177
The Democratic State in Practice 201
Brazil: The Ethics of Responsibility Fernando HenriqueCardoso 205
Latin America: National and Global Factors in Democratization and Democratic Consolidation Cesar Gaviria 209
Democracy: A View from India Inder K. Gujral 218
Portugal: Executive-Legislative Relations Anibal Cavaco Silva 221
The Latin American Military Enigma Carlos Blanco 224
Epilogue Jorge I. Dominguez 239
List of Contributors 241