More than ever Canada’s constitutional monarchy should be treasured as a distinct asset for the nation.
Following Queen Elizabeth II’s historic Diamond Jubilee in 2012, there is renewed interest in the institution of the Crown in Canada and the roles of the queen, governor general, and lieutenant governor. Author D. Michael Jackson traces the story of the monarchy and the Crown and shows how they are integral to Canada’s parliamentary democracy. His book underscores the Crown’s key contribution to the origins, evolution, and successful functioning of Canadian federalism, while the place of the monarchy in francophone Canada and the First Nations receives special attention.
Complex issues such as the royal prerogative, constitutional conventions, the office of lieutenant governor, and Canada’s honours system are made readily accessible to the general reader. Jackson examines the option of republican governance for Canada and concludes that responsible government under a constitutional monarchy is far preferable. He further argues that the Crown should be treasured as a distinct asset for Canada.
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About the Author
D. Michael Jackson was chief of protocol for the Government of Saskatchewan from 1980 to 2005, coordinated 10 royal tours for the province, and established the provincial honours program. Appointed Commander of the Royal Victorian Order by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005, he is a Member of the Saskatchewan Order of Merit and lives in Regina.
Table of Contents
Introduction: The Crown in Canada
I Canada - Historically a Constitutional Monarchy
Five Centuries of Monarchy
Independence and Legitimacy
The Monarchy and Quebec
The Monarchy and the First Nations
II Crown, Parliamentary Democracy, and the Royal Prerogative
A Monarchical Constitution
The Royal Prerogative – No Dead Letter
The Reserve Powers I: Dissolution and Prorogation
Reserve Powers of the Governor General and “The King-Byng Affair”
The Issue of Dissolution in 2008
The Issue of Prorogation in 2008-2009
The Reserve Powers II: Appointment and Dismissal
The Question of Honours
Honours after Confederation
The Bennett Revival of Honours
Honours Disappear Again – and Re-emerge
The Move to National Honours
III The Provincial Crown in Canada - From Subordinate to Coordinate
The Divisible Crown
Executive Sovereignty and the Royal Prerogative
Queen’s Counsel and Escheats
Resolving the Stand-Off: The Maritime Bank Case and Beyond
Did the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council Subvert the Fathers of Confederation?
Comparison with Australia
Status of the Governors
The Courts – a Very Different Pattern from Canada
IV Lieutenant Governors - Prestige, Obscurity and Revival
Vice-Regal Powers: Refusal and Reservation of Royal Assent
Vice-Regal Powers: Appointment and Dismissal, Prorogation and Dissolution Federal Officer?
Vice-Regal Appointments and Tenure
Decline of the Lieutenant Governor
Vice-Regal Revival in Canada’s Provinces
A Case Study: Saskatchewan
Vice-Regal Ups and Downs: The Story of Saskatchewan’s Government House
The Decline and Near Fall of Government House
Revival and Renewal
Revival and Renewal Redux – and Expansion
V The Contemporary Provincial Crown
The Constitutional Role
Appointment and Dissolution
Dissolution and Dismissal: A Case Study – British Columbia
Special Warrants: A Case Study - Saskatchewan
Vice-Regal Intervention: A Case Study – Alberta
Issues in Ontario
To be consulted, to encourage and to warn
A Case Study: Saskatchewan Resuscitates Bagehot
The Decorative Functions of the Crown
A Case Study: Saskatchewan
More Than One Crown? Provincial Honours in Canada
Provincial Honours – the Beginnings
A Case Study: Saskatchewan and Provincial Honours
The Contrast with Australia
Public Initiatives and Civil Society: the Saskatchewan Experience
“Royal Saskatchewan”: A Case Study of Royal Tours
Enhancing the Provincial Crown
Vice-Regal Resources and Accountability
VI Canada: Federal Monarchy - or Federal Republic?
Downplaying the Monarchy
Governor General and Prime Minister
Tensions: The Governor General and Prime Ministerial Government
A Republican Option for Canada?
Head of State
Presidential Powers and Status
Codification of the Reserve Powers?
The Governor General as Canadian “Head of State”
Trudeau’s Bill C-60
Rideau Hall on a Republican Roll
The Letters Patent of 1947
A Lapsed Monarchy?
Federalism in Monarchy and Republic
Canada and Australia
The First Nations
Individual and Community
The Monarchy Rebounds