It was not the original intention of the Spanish to harm the Hispanic-American natives. The Spanish Crown, Councils and Church considered the natives free and intelligent vassals entitled to be embraced by Christianity and by the Hispanic civil culture. However, it was the same monarchy's decision to exploit the natives as taxpayers and as a reservoir of forced labor that made its rule in America exceptionally destructive. The recruitment of the natives to serve the interests of the Spanish Empire under what can only be considered near to slave conditions, compounded by systematic annihilation of their cultures and by cyclical epidemics, led to the near total eradication of the Indians. Based upon primary sources and current research on the relationship between colonialism and genocide, this book examines whether the Spanish actions were genocidal.
|Publisher:||Sussex Academic Press|
|Product dimensions:||6.00(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.90(d)|
About the Author
Eitan Ginzberg is the author of two books and serves as a researcher at the Sverdlin Institute of Latin American History and Culture at the University of Tel Aviv. His research focuses on questions of infra-political resistance, history and culture of Latin America, and the study of genocide.
Table of Contents
Contents Introduction Genocide and the Hispanic American dilemma The concept of genocide and its referential limitations The Limited Approach to the question of genocide Genocide as a twentieth-century phenomenon The Jewish Holocaust: a unique genocidal phenomenon? Should cultural extermination be viewed as genocide? The question of intent Settler colonialism as piecemeal genocide? The extended approach to the question of genocide Is genocide without intent possible? Genocide as a universal phenomenon Genocide as an extermination of culture Genocide as a colonial condition: Lemkin’s observation The Hispanic American dilemma according to Lemkin Focus and aims of this study Historical sources Chapter 1 America and the Native Americans: on the Eve of a Tragic Encounter The population of America on the eve of the conquest Cultural background Origins of the Central and South American cultures Creating existential frameworks for daily life The dimension of time Material culture and social life Spiritual life and ritual Writing and literature Political structure and imperial territory on the eve of the conquest Human sacrifice and cannibalism From discovery to concealment Chapter 2 Spaniards and Indianos at the Onset of the Conquest Emergence of the Spaniard as a “frontier man” The consolidation of Spain Spanish momentum and expanding horizons Chapter 3 The Discovery and Conquest of America The discovery and exploration of the New World The conquest of Mexico The conquest of Peru Factors that contributed to the Spanish victory Chapter 4 The Conquest: A Strategy of Cruelty and Destruction Dynamics of mass killings “Pacification”: The horrors of an expanding conquest The Chichimeca Affair Devastation of infrastructure Violence as logic of conquest Cultural destruction Chapter 5 Institutions of Subjugation and Acculturation The Encomienda The repartiemento (allocation) system The repartimiento on trial: The Third Provincial Council of the Mexican Church (1585) Background, framework, and agenda Pedro de Pravia’s response The Franciscan position Ortíz de Hinojosa’s standpoint Life under the repartimiento system Debt bondage The head tax (tributo) Indian resettlement and destruction of regions of memory Slavery Conclusions Chapter 6 Debating the Appropriate Treatment of Native Americans (1511–1539) The groundbreaking sermons of Antonio de Montesinos (1511) The Council of Burgos (1512) The Requerimiento The Valladolid Conference of November 1526 In the name of the humanity and wisdom of the Indians: the Papal Bull of Paul III Francisco de Vitoria and the justification of the Spanish rule in America (1534–1539) Proposal for a new legal order The conceptual framework The Indis and the false claims on America De Indis and the seemingly legal Spanish claims to America De iure belli: Was the war against the Indians a just one? Conclusions Chapter 7 Debating the Appropriate Treatment of Native Americans (1542–1585) The new laws of 1542 The idea of restitution (1547) The debate: Bartolomé de Las Casas versus Juan Gines de Sepúlveda (1550–1551) The Codex of 1573 The Third Provincial Council of the Mexican Church (1585) Conclusion Chapter 8 Unintended Calamity or a Genocidal Encounter? What did actually happen in Sixteenth-Century Hispano-America? The Inevitability of the Spanish Colonization The Logics of Spanish colonialism and its consequences The Debate about the plagues and their causes Unintended calamity or a genocidal encounter? Denying responsibility From denial of responsibility to denial of the Indian Epilogue: Lessons about Genocide and the Destruction of Culture The policy of Indian rehabilitation and its critics The emergence of Spanish American Indianism Lessons to be drawn from the extermination of the Indians Glossary of Terms Bibliography Vocabulary List Index