The Environmental Policy Paradox / Edition 5

The Environmental Policy Paradox / Edition 5

by Zachary A. Smith
ISBN-10:
013602999X
ISBN-13:
9780136029991
Pub. Date:
02/06/2008
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis

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Overview

The Environmental Policy Paradox / Edition 5

This text provides an introduction to the policy making process in the United States with regard to air, water, land use, agriculture, energy, waste disposal, and other areas, in addition to chapters on global and international environmental issues and institutions.

It explains why some environmental ideas shape policy while others do not, and illustrates that even when the best short- and long-term solutions to environmental problems are identified, the task of implementing these solutions is either left undone or is completed too late. Also included is a comprehensive history of the environmental movement.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780136029991
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 02/06/2008
Series: MySearchLab Series 15% off Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 368
Product dimensions: 5.28(w) x 8.95(h) x 0.69(d)

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
Abbreviations     xv
About the Author     xix
The Poljcy-Making Process
Ecosystem Interdependence     1
The Steady State     4
Common Pool Resources     4
Summary     5
Notes     6
Changing Cultural and Social Beliefs: From Conservation to Environmentalism     7
Dominant Social Paradigm     7
Economics and Growth     8
The Role of Religion     11
Science and Technology: Our Views of Nature     12
Toward Better Science Policy     15
History of the Environmental Movement     16
Dominance     16
Early Awakening     16
Early Conservationist     17
Later Conservationist     17
The Reawakening     18
Complacency     19
The Little Reagan Revolution     19
Post-Reagan Resurgence     19
Interest Groups     20
Public Opinion and the Environment     22
Demographics     24
Elections     25
Environmental Discourse     26
Survivalism     27
Prometheans     27
Administrative Rationalism     28
Democratic Pragmatism     28
Economic Rationalism     29
Sustainable Development     29
Ecological Modernization     30
Green Romanticism     30
Green Rationalism     31
Summary     31
Notes     32
The Regulatory Environment     36
The Regulatory Context     36
Science and Risk Analysis     37
Unanticipated Consequences     39
Cost-Benefit Analysis     40
The Role of Government     41
Approaches to Regulation     43
Fundamentals of Environmental Law     45
Summary     47
Notes     48
The Political and Institutional Setting     49
The Institutional Setting     49
Formal Institutions     49
Informal Institutions     52
Institutional Biases     55
Incrementalism     55
Decentralization     56
Short-Term Bias     56
Ideological Bias     57
Private Nature of Public Policy Making     58
Crisis and Reforms     58
The Political Setting      60
Pluralism     60
The Regulators     64
Summary     80
Notes     81
Environmental Policy
Air     85
Sources     85
Health Effects     88
Motor Vehicles     90
Air Pollution: Law, Regulations, and Enforcement     93
Regulatory Innovations     96
Regulatory Issues     99
Toxic Air Pollution     101
Acid Rain     104
Stratospheric Ozone     108
The Greenhouse Effect (Global Warming)     113
Summary     118
Notes     118
Water     126
Sources     127
Nonpoint Sources of Pollution     129
Groundwater Pollution     130
Health Effects of Water Pollution     131
Water Law and Regulation     132
Clean Water Act     132
The CWA and Nonpoint Pollution Sources     134
The CWA and the Regulatory Environment     134
Safe Drinking Water Act     136
Criticisms of Water Pollution Policy     138
The Paradox in Water Pollution Policy     140
Summary      144
Notes     144
Energy     149
History of Energy     151
Industrial Revolution     151
Oil and War     151
Role of Personal Consumption     152
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and the Oil Crises     153
Development of Nuclear Power     156
Development of a National Energy Policy     157
Nonrenewable Energy Sources     161
Coal     161
Oil     163
Natural Gas     164
Geothermal Energy     164
Nuclear Power     165
Renewable Energy     166
Hydropower     167
Solar Power     168
Wind Power     169
Biomass     170
Conservation and Energy Efficiency: Some Suggestions for the Future     172
Conservation in Homes and Buildings     173
Conservation in Transportation     174
Conservation in Industry     175
Obstacles to Conservation     176
An Ecological Conclusion     177
Summary     178
Notes     178
Toxic and Hazardous Waste     189
Solid Waste     190
What Is Solid Waste?     190
Scope of the Problem     191
Disposal Methods     192
Regulations     193
Solutions     194
Hazardous Wastes     198
Nature of the Problem     198
Disposal Methods     200
Federal Regulations     204
Regulatory Problems     208
The Policy Paradox in Hazardous Waste Management     211
Summary     214
Notes     214
Land Management Issues     222
Local Land-Use Planning     222
Types of Land-Use Planning     223
Urban Planning     224
Smart Growth     226
Soil Erosion     228
Farmland Conversion     229
Desertification     231
Federal Land Management     231
Multiple-Use     232
Recreation     233
Fee Demonstration Project     233
Commercial Recreation Permits and Concessions     233
Fire Management     234
Roadless Areas     235
Wilderness     235
History     235
Proposed Wilderness and Wilderness Study Areas     237
National Park Service Management     239
Endangered Species     240
Ecosystem Management     244
Summary     246
Notes     246
International Environmental Issues     253
Population and Food Production     254
Desertification and Food Production     259
Global Pollution     260
The Ozone Layer     260
The Greenhouse     262
Deforestation     264
Ocean Pollution     265
Less Developed Countries: North Vs. South     266
International Conflict     268
Summary     270
Notes     271
International Environmental Management     275
International Environmentalism     275
Alternative Political Systems     277
Market-Based Economies     277
Collective Ownership Systems     278
Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union     278
China     280
International Environmental Management     281
Common Pool Resources     282
Creation of an IGO     283
Economic Globalization and the Second Industrial Revolution     285
International Regulatory Efforts      287
Controlling Oceanic Pollution     287
Atmospheric Conventions     288
Hazardous Waste Control at the International Level     290
Protection of Endangered and Threatened Species     290
Trends in the International Regulatory Process     291
Summary     292
Notes     292
Conclusion     296
Notes     299
How We Study Public Policy-Theoretical Approaches     300
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as Amended     308
Index     316

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