Benedictus de Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher. Benedictus de Spinoza is known for laying the groundwork for the 18th century Enlightenment and modern biblical criticism, including modern conceptions of the self and the universe, he came to be considered one of the great rationalists of 17th century philosophy, medieval thought, and ethics & morality. In Benedictus de Spinoza's Ethics, he opposes Descartes' mind-body dualism. Ethics earned Benedictus de Spinoza recognition as one of Western philosophy's most important medieval thought thinkers and ethics and morality thinkers. Spinoza's philosophy encompasses nearly every area of philosophical discourse, including metaphysics, epistemology, political philosophy, ethics, philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. In Ethics, the refined conceptions of medieval philosophy are turned against themselves and destroyed entirely by Benedictus de Spinoza. Ethics is often required reading for courses in politics & social sciences, philosophy, medieval thought, and ethics & morality. This edition of Ethics includes Benedictus de Spinoza's additional work titled; Treatise on The Emendation of The Intellect, and it also includes Benedictus de Spinoza's work titled Correspondence.