The Etiology of Human Breast Cancer: Endocrine, Genetic, Viral, Immunologic and Other Considerations

The Etiology of Human Breast Cancer: Endocrine, Genetic, Viral, Immunologic and Other Considerations

by A.N. Papaioannou

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642658433
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 11/15/2011
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974
Pages: 216
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Endocrine Considerations.- 1.1 Estrogens and Ovarian Activity.- 1.1.1 Clinical Observations.- 1.1.2 The Evidence in the Male.- 1.1.3 Other Observations.- 1.1.4 Epidemiologic Studies.- 1.1.5 Laboratory Endocrine Findings.- 1.2 Estrogens from the Gut.- 1.3 Other Hormones.- 1.3.1 Progesterone.- 1.3.2 Androgens.- 1.3.3 Thyroid Hormones.- 1.3.4 Corticosteroids.- 1.3.5 Pituitary Hormones.- 1.4 Oral Contraceptives.- 1.4.1 General Considerations.- 1.4.2 Side-Effects in the Breast.- 1.4.3 Other Effects.- 1.4.4 Contraceptives and Neoplasms of the Breast.- 1.5 Steroid Excretion and Tryptophan Metabolism.- 1.6 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 2 Genetic Considerations.- 2.1 Epidemiologic Observations.- 2.1.1 Female Breast.- 2.1.2 Familial Predisposition.- 2.1.3 Male Breast Cancer.- 2.2 Experimental Observations.- 2.2.1 Endocrine Studies.- 2.2.2 Chromosomal Changes.- 2.2.3 IR Genes and HL-A Antigens.- 2.3 Blood Group Associations.- 2.4 Genetics of Apocrine Glands.- 2.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 3 Viral Considerations.- 3.1 Experimental Data.- 3.1.1 Historical Notes.- 3.1.2 General Properties of Murine Mammary Tumor Virus.- 3.1.3 Reverse Transcriptase.- 3.1.4 Viral Transmission.- 3.1.5 Tumor Induction.- 3.1.6 Tumor Prevention.- 3.2 The Evidence in Man.- 3.2.1 Virus Isolation and Identification.- 3.2.2 The Possible Route of Viral Transmission.- 3.3 Endogenous RNA Virus Oncogenesis.- 3.4 The Significance of Viral Studies.- 3.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 4 Immunologic Considerations.- 4.1 Experimental and General Observations.- 4.1.1 Tumor-Specific Transplantation Antigens.- 4.1.2 Fetal Antigens in Tumors.- 4.1.3 Immunosurveillance, Immunosuppression and Oncogenesis.- 4.1.4 Genetic Control of Immune Response.- 4.1.5 The Immunostimulation Hypothesis.- 4.1.6 Nonimmunologic Surveillance.- 4.2 The Evidence in Man.- 4.2.1 Clinical Observations.- 4.2.2 The Clinical Consequences of Impaired Immunity.- 4.2.3 Morphologic Evidence of Immunity.- 4.2.4 Tumor-Associated Antigens.- 4.2.5 Cell-Mediated Immunity.- 4.2.6 Humoral Immunity.- 4.3 Thymus and Breast Cancer.- 4.3.1 Animal Data.- 4.3.2 Observations in Man.- 4.4 Lymphocyte Counts in Breast Cancer.- 4.5 Hormonal Modulation of Immune Responses.- 4.5.1 Corticosteroids.- 4.5.2 Estrogens and Androgens.- 4.5.3 Growth Hormone and Thyroxine.- 4.5.4 Progestogens.- 4.5.5 Other Hormones.- 4.6 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 5 Miscellaneous.- 5.1 Trauma.- 5.2 Socioeconomic and Other Factors.- 5.2.1 Socioeconomic Status.- 5.2.2 Histology.- 5.2.3 Epidemiology of Survival.- 5.2.4 Relationship to Other Illnesses or Factors.- 5.3 Association with Benign Breast Conditions.- 5.4 Association with Other Cancers.- 5.4.1 Second Primaries.- 5.4.2 Multicentricity and Bilaterality.- 5.4.3 Possible Etiologic Associations.- 5.5 Miscellaneous Other Studies.- 5.5.1 Enzyme Studies.- 5.5.2 Nuclear DNA Abnormalities.- 5.5.3 Nature of Autonomy of Breast Tumors.- 5.5.4 Inducible Enzymes and Chemical Carcinogenesis.- 5.6 Environmental Temperature.- 5.7 Radiation Exposure.- 5.7.1 Carcinogenic Potential on the Human Breast.- 5.7.1 Possible Effects of Diagnostic Procedures.- 5.7.1 Immunosuppression after Mediastinal Radiotherapy.- 5.8 Dietary and Chemical Factors.- 5.8.1 Fats.- 5.8.2 Proteins.- 5.8.3 Other Foodstuffs.- 5.8.4 Environmental Carcinogens.- 5.8.5 Carcinogens in Food.- 5.8.6 Drugs.- 5.9 Sebaceous Glands and Breast Cancer.- 5.9.1 Considerations on Sebaceous Gland Function.- 5.9.2 Sebum Excretion in Breast Cancer Patients.- 5.9.3 A Possible Endocrine Interpretation.- 5.10 Psychological Factors.- 5.10.1 Animal Studies.- 5.10.2 Emotional Status of Women with Breast Cancer.- 5.10.3 Psychological Stress and Carcinogenesis.- 5.11 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 6 Concluding Remarks.- 6.1 Generalities.- 6.2 The Comparative Importance of Carcinogenic Factors in Man.- 6.3 Implications for Therapy and Prevention.

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