The Footprint of Polar Tourism: Tourist Behaviour at Cultural Heritage Sites in Antarctica and Svalbard

The Footprint of Polar Tourism: Tourist Behaviour at Cultural Heritage Sites in Antarctica and Svalbard

by Ricardo Mariano Roura

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Overview

The Footprint of Polar Tourism: Tourist Behaviour at Cultural Heritage Sites in Antarctica and Svalbard by Ricardo Mariano Roura

This thesis aims to describe and interpret the effects of tourism on historic sites in Antarctica and Svalbard (also known as Spitsbergen), and to assess the implications for management. Explorers, whalers, seal hunters, scientists and others have left many material remains in the Polar Regions that are significant because they tell the history of the exploration and exploitation of these regions. Contemporary polar tourism represents a new phase in this exploration and exploitation of the Polar Regions. The potential for the transformation of historic sites has increased following the substantial expansion of polar tourism in recent decades. Key cultural heritage sites are regularly included in standard tourist itineraries and are also the subject of specialized tourism. In this context, the central research question of this thesis is: What are the effects of tourism on polar historic sites, and what are the implications of this for the management of tourism and these historic sites?

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789077922873
Publisher: Barkhuis Publishing
Publication date: 03/15/2012
Series: Circumpolar Studies Series , #7
Pages: 306
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.40(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Dedication xiii

Preface xv

Abstract 1

1 Introduction 1

2 Conceptual framework 1

3 Research methods 2

4 Main themes 2

5 Conclusions 3

1 General introduction 5

1.1 Tourism and historic sites in Antarctica and Svalbard 5

1.2 Key concepts 12

1.2.1 Heritage, historic sites, and the historic environment 12

1.2.2 Tourism, polar tourism, and polar tourists 16

1.2.3 Activity area and footprints, palimpsests and impacts 18

1.3 Objectives and research questions 20

1.4 Research strategy: Behavioural archaeology 22

1.5 Complementary theories 27

1.5.1 Tourism attraction systems 27

1.5.2 The value of historic sites: Rubbish Theory 28

1.6 Translating between different terminologies and frameworks 29

1.7 Contrasting Antarctica and Svalbard 30

1.8 The geography of cultural heritage in Antarctica and Svalbard 33

1.9 Research approach: Creating research opportunities 35

1.9.1 Dedicated vs. opportunistic research 35

1.9.2 Case study approach 37

1.9.3 Unit of analysis 37

1.9.4 The boundaries of research 38

1.10 Structure of this thesis 39

2 Research methods 51

2.1 Introduction: Unobtrusive research methods 51

2.2 Modi operandi 52

2.3 Site surveys 56

2.3.1 Features surveyed 56

2.3.2 Survey checklist 56

2.3.3 Survey intensity 57

2.4 Observations 58

2.4.1 Direct observations 58

2.4.2 Participant observation 65

2.4.3 Monitoring compliance through observations 66

2.5 Photography 68

2.5.1 Photography as a documentation aid 69

2.5.2 Repeat photography 69

2.6 Documentary records 70

2.6.1 Regular records 70

2.6.2 Personal and episodic records 73

2.6.3 Internetblogs 74

2.6.4 Personal collections 74

2.6.5 Markers 75

2.7 Interviews 75

2.8 Study sites 75

2.9 Closing remarks: A forest of methods, a sea of data 76

2.10 Tables chapter 2 77

3 Regulating Antarctic tourism and the precautionary principle 85

Abstract 85

3.1 Introduction 85

3.2 Antarctic tourism and cumulative impacts 89

3.3 The Antarctic Treaty System and existing legal instruments to address cumulative impacts 90

3.3.1 The Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol 91

3.3.2 Relevant instruments under the Protocol to address cumulative impacts 92

3.4 The precautionary principle 96

3.4.1 Reasons for applying the precautionary principle to Antarctica 96

3.4.2 Practical implications of applying the precautionary principle 97

3.5 The Antarctic tourism debate 1991-2004: Is the precautionary principle being applied? 99

3.5.1 The Antarctic tourism debate 1991-2003 99

3.5.2 Self-regulation in Antarctica: The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) 99

3.5.3 Outcome of the XXVIIth ATOM, Cape Town, 2004 100

3.6 Characterizing the current measures: Conditions or restrictions? 102

3.7 Is the Precautionary Principle being applied? 103

3.8 Regulating Antarctic tourism: A challenge to the Antarctic Treaty System 105

3.9 Conclusion 107

3.10 Acknowledgments 108

4 Monitoring the transformation of historic features in Antarctica and Svalbard: Local processes and regional contexts 109

Abstract 109

4.1 Introduction 109

4.2 Methods 111

4.2.1 Repeat photography as a research method 111

4.2.2 Data collection 112

4.2.3 Data analysis 113

4.3 Case studies 114

4.3.1 Building foundations with cooking stove, Ny-London, Svalbard 114

4.3.2 Entrance to "Josefine" coal mine, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard 117

4.3.3 Cross at Observation Hill, Ross Island, Antarctica 120

4.3.4 Scoffs chart table at the Terra Nova Hut, Cape Evans, Ross Island, Antarctica 122

4.3.5 Former cemetery at Whalers Bay, Deception Island, Antarctica 126

4.3.6 Sealer's shelter, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica 130

4.3.7 Boatshed at Base A, Port Lockroy, Goudier Island, Antarctica 133

4.4 Discussion 135

4.4.1 Overview: Site-specific changes 135

4.4.2 The regional context of local changes 137

4.5 Conclusions 139

4.6 Acknowledgments 140

4.7 Tables Chapter 4 141

5 Antarctic scientific bases: Environmental and cultural heritage perspectives 1983-2008 145

Abstract 145

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Overview: Antarctic Historic Sites and Monuments 146

5.3 Perspectives on Antarctic material culture 148

5.3.1 Scientific bases and the practice of inspection 148

5.3.2 Environmental perspectives: NGO position on Antarctic scientific bases 150

5.3.3 Cultural heritage, perspectives: Historic site designation of Antarctic scientific bases 152

5.4 Antarctic scientific bases and Rubbish Theory 158

5.4 Conclusions 163

5.5 Acknowledgments 164

6 The polar cultural heritage as a tourism attraction 165

6.1 Introduction 165

6.2 Methods 169

6.3 The nuclei: the Airship Mooring Mast at Ny-Ålesund and associated cultural heritage 171

6.4 The tourists: organized visits to the Airship Mooring Mast 173

6.5 The markers: narratives of the transpolar flights 174

6.6 Polar cultural heritage as tourism attraction systems 177

6.7 Conclusions 179

6.8 Acknowledgments 180

7 From extraction to exhibition: Tourism at a disused marble quarry at Ny-London, Svalbard 181

Abstract 181

7.1 Introduction 181

7.2 Methods 185

7.3 Results and discussion 186

7.3.1 Rapid site appraisal using low-technology methods: Status and change 186

7.3.2 Territory: Use patterns by visitors 187

7.3.3 Site management 189

7.4 Conclusions 194

7.4 Acknowledgements 197

7.5 Tables of Chapter 7 198

8 Cultural heritage tourism in Antarctica and Svalbard: Patterns, impacts, and policies 203

Abstract 203

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Overview: contrasting Antarctica and Svalbard 204

8.2.1 Background 204

8.2.2 Cultural heritage 205

8.2.3 Organised tourism and tourism policies 207

8.3 Elements of visitation: Methods 209

8.4 Results and discussion 209

8.4.1 Tourism patterns and cultural heritage 209

8.4.2 Tourism impacts and cultural heritage 215

8.4.2.1 Tourism behaviour 215

8.4.2.2 Tourism behaviour traces and impacts 217

8.5 Conclusions 219

8.6 Acknowledgments 221

9 Overview and synthesis 225

9.1 Introduction 225

9.2 Tourism as behaviour 225

9.2.1 Destination selection 225

9.2.2 Behavioural patterns of shore visits 226

9.2.3 Individual behaviour 227

9.2.4 The footprint of tourism 229

9.2.5 Tourism in the context of other site formation processes 234

9.3 Management Perspectives 234

9.3.1 The Effects of tourism on historic sites: interactions and exposures 235

9.3.2 Historic site sensitivity factors 239

9.3.3 Impact assessment and historic sites 240

9.3.4 Managed and unmanaged sites, and the "time capsule concept 243

10 General conclusions 249

10.1 Introduction 249

10.2 Central research question and strategy of inquiry 249

10.2.1 Research themes and associated sub-questions 250

10.2.2 Behavioural archaeology perspectives on the effects of tourism 251

10.2.3 Management perspectives on the effects of tounsm 254

10.3 Reflection on research methods and future research 256

10.4 Closing remarks 257

Acknowledgments 261

References 265

Epilogue 287

Appendix 1 Acronyms and abbreviations 291

Appendix 2 Glossary 292

Appendix 3 Cultural heritage in the 2001 Svalbard Ac 297

Appendix 4 Cultural heritage in the 1991 Antarctic Protocol 300

Appendix 5 List of interviewees 301

Nederlandse Samenvatting303

1 Inleiding 303

2 Conceptueel kader 303

3 Onderzoeksmethoden 304

4 Hoofd thema's 304

5 Conclusies 306

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