From the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi between Indigenous and settler cultures to the emergence of the first-ever state-funded Māori television network, New Zealand has been a hotbed of Indigenous concerns. Given its history of colonization, coping with biculturalism is central to New Zealand life. Much of this “bicultural drama” plays out in the media and is molded by an anxiety surrounding the ongoing struggle over citizenship rights that is seated within the politics of recognition. The Fourth Eye brings together Indigenous and non-Indigenous scholars to provide a critical and comprehensive account of the intricate and complex relationship between the media and Māori culture.
Examining the Indigenous mediascape, The Fourth Eye shows how Māori filmmakers, actors, and media producers have depicted conflicts over citizenship rights and negotiated the representation of Indigenous people. From nineteenth-century Māori-language newspapers to contemporary Māori film and television, the contributors explore a variety of media forms including magazine cover stories, print advertisements, commercial images, and current Māori-language newspapers to illustrate the construction, expression, and production of indigeneity through media.
Focusing on New Zealand as a case study, the authors address the broader question: what is Indigenous media? While engaging with distinct themes such as the misrepresentation of Māori people in the media, access of Indigenous communities to media technologies, and the use of media for activism, the essays in this much-needed new collection articulate an Indigenous media landscape that converses with issues that reach far beyond New Zealand.
Contributors: Sue Abel, U of Auckland; Joost de Bruin, Victoria U of Wellington; Suzanne Duncan, U of Otago; Kevin Fisher, U of Otago; Allen Meek, Massey U; Lachy Paterson, U of Otago; Chris Prentice, U of Otago; Jay Scherer, U of Alberta; Jo Smith, Victoria U of Wellington; April Strickland; Stephen Turner, U of Auckland.
About the Author
Brendan Hokowhitu is dean of the faculty of native studies at the University of Alberta. He is coeditor of Indigenous Identity and Resistance: Researching the Diversity of Knowledge.
Table of Contents
MapsIntroduction: The Indigenous Mediascape in Aotearoa/New Zealand Brendan Hokowhitu and Vijay Devadas
I. Mediated Indigeneity: Representing the Indigenous Other1. Governing Indigenous Sovereignty: Biopolitics and the ‘Terror Raids’ in New Zealand Vijay Devadas2. Postcolonial Trauma: Child Abuse, Genocide, and Journalism in New Zealand Allen Meek3. Promotional Culture and Indigenous Identity: Trading the Other Jay Scherer4. Viewing against the Grain: Postcolonial Remediation in Rain of the Children Kevin Fisher and Brendan Hokowhitu5. Consume or Be Consumed: Targeting Māori Consumers in Print Media Suzanne DuncanII. Indigenous Media: Emergence, Struggles, and Interventions6. Theorizing Indigenous Media Brendan Hokowhitu7. Te Hokioi and the Legitimization of the Māori Nation Lachy Paterson8. Barry Barclay's Te Rua: The Unmanned Camera and Māori Political Activism April Strickland9. Reflections on Barry Barclay and Fourth Cinema Stephen TurnerIII. Māori Television: Nation, Culture, and Identity10. The Māori Television Service and Questions of Culture Chris Prentice11. Māori Television, Anzac Day, and Constructing ‘Nationhood’ Sue Abel 12. Indigeneity and Cultural Belonging in Survivor-Styled Reality Television from New Zealand Jo Smith and Joost de Bruin