A fascinating history of railroad development on every continent.
At one point railroads were the most important form of transport in the world, responsible for opening up vast areas to settlement and industry. With the threat of global warming and a potential energy crisis looming, rail transportation is experiencing a welcome resurgence.
The Historical Atlas of World Railroads charts the rise, fall and revival of railroads over the past 200 years, from the earliest experiments with wooden rails and horse-drawn wagons, through the rail-building boom of the steam age, to the onset of the modern high-speed lines, diesel-electric locomotives and electric tilting trains of today.
This comprehensive analysis and history covers:
- The development of passenger and freight coaches and locomotives
- How railroads and their infrastructures are built and operated
- The development of rail types
- The construction of tunnels and bridges
- The latest advances in signaling technology, safety systems and freight-handling techniques and equipment.
Packed with archival photographs and high-quality color maps, The Historical Atlas of World Railroads brings history to life by revealing all aspects of rail transportation and technology.
|Publisher:||Firefly Books, Limited|
|Product dimensions:||9.60(w) x 13.00(h) x 1.70(d)|
About the Author
John Westwood is an authority on the history of railroad transport worldwide. He is the author of Trains, The Historical Atlas of North American Railroads, World Railways and Great Train Disasters.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
The Worldwide Spread of Railroads
The Beginning of Railroads, 1700-1824
The Iron Horse, Steam Power Arrives, 1825-30
Pioneering Ideas, 1831-50
Overcoming Natural Obstacles, 1851-80
Finding Solutions, 1881-1913
Railroads During and After the Great War, 1914-22
The Quest for Speed, 1923-45
New Age of the Railroads
Railroad Restructuring, Late Twentieth Century
Railroads of Britain and Ireland, from 1852
London to Glasgow, the West Coast Main Line
The Power of Steam, 1800-34
Railroads of France, from 1832
The Orient Express, a Glorious Past
The Aquitaine, French Heavyweight Flyer
Paris-Lyon, Pioneer TGV
Improving Performance, 1835-74
Railroads in Belgium and Luxembourg, from 1835
Meeting the Customer's Needs, 1800-75
Railroads in Germany, from 1835
Trans-Europe Express Trains
Efficiency Drive, 1875-1905
Railroads in Russia and The Former Soviet States, from 1837
Backbone of an Empire, the Trans-Siberian Railroad
Locomotive Development, 1906-26
Railroads in Switzerland and Austria, from 1838
Railroads Through the Alps, from 1871
Climbing the Mountains
Specialized Rail Traffic, 1876-1924
Railroads in the Netherlands, from 1839
The Zenith of Steam, 1927-34
The Great Locomotive Works
Railroads in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary, from 1839
Fit for Purpose, Rolling Stock, From 1925
Railroads in Italy, from 1839
Speed and Luxury, the Settebello
Railroads in Poland, from 1842
Dawn of a New Age, 1935-44
Railroads in the Former Yugoslav States and Albania, from 1846
The Eclipse of Steam
Railroads in Scandinavia, from 1847
The Diesel Locomotive
Railroads in Spain and Portugal, from 1848
The Modern Approach
Railroads in Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece, from 1866
Railroads in North America
Railroads in the United States of America, from 1830
Railroads in Canada, from 1836
North American Transcontinental Railroads
The Chief, Across America in Style
Conrail, Rescuing the Fallen, 1976-99
The Canadian, Premier Transcontinental Express
Modern Passenger Rolling Stock
Railroads in Central America and the Caribbean, from 1837
Modern Freight Rolling Stock
Railroads in South America, from 1851
Railroads Across the Andes, 1870-1914
Railroads of Asia
Railroads in Turkey and the Middle East, from 1856
The Railroad Gauges
The Narrow-Gauge Railroad
Railroads on the Indian Sub-Continent, from 1853
India's Fastest the Rajdhani Express
Engineering the Tracks
Railroads in the Far East, from 1853
The Trans-Asian Railroad
The Railroads of China
Rails into Tibet
Shinkansen Japan's Pioneer Flyer, from 1966
Bridges and Tunnels
Railroads in Australia and New Zealand
Railroads in Australia, from 1854
Spanning the Arid Continent
Railroads in New Zealand, from 1863
The Southernmost Route
Railroads in Africa
Railroads in Northeast Africa, from 1854
Passenger Service Operations
Railroads in Southern Africa, from 1860
The Height of Luxury
Railroads in West Africa, from 1862
Freight Yard Operation
Railroads in Central Africa, from 1886
Rail's Past and Future
The predominating influence of geography led to the growth of railroads, so it is fascinating and worthwhile to study the situation on a worldwide basis, with the aid of maps.
Not so many years ago, there was a widely held opinion in most parts of the world that railroads were relics of the past. For medium-distance travel, the passenger train had been outstripped both in speed and general convenience by the private automobile; in commuter travel, city workers were beginning to prefer road congestion and the difficulties of parking to the gross discomfort, overcrowding and occasional breakdowns in local train services; while for long-distance travel, the airplane enjoyed an immense superiority in speed. Above all, popular opinion had it that rail travel was being outmoded. In the transport of small individual freight consignments, struggling amid antiquated facilities and outmoded legal regulations, railroads could not match the rapidly developing road service provided by fast trucks. Only the handling of heavy freight and bulk minerals remained with the railroads, and that mainly because no one else wanted the business. Nowadays, there is a realization that, apart from heavy-haul, railroads are competitive in intercity passenger service and in fast freights over longer distances, as well as being indispensable for cities with heavy commuter requirements. Their relatively low energy consumption is also a recommendation.
Because the predominating influence of geography led to the growth of railroads in the first place, so, in this critical phase, when so many outside influences are beginning to highlight the importance of railroads in modern society, it is fascinating and immensely worthwhile to study the situation anew, on a worldwide basis, with the aid of maps. Two of the first public railroads in the world, the Stockton & Darlington and the Baltimore & Ohio, were built to convey minerals from inland areas to the sea for shipment. When the merchants of large industrial centers wanted quicker connection with their interests elsewhere, routes were chosen where geography made the going easiest and cheapest from the constructional point of view, and gave prospects of fast transit while minimizing running costs.
The purpose of this book is to show how geography as much as sociology and industry has dictated railroad evolution. That said, it must not be imagined that geography was always on the side of the railroad entrepreneurs and engineers. After the first modest beginnings, often accompanied by phenomenal financial success, business interests demanded the execution of bolder projects and more direct connections. Contentment with roundabout routes, following the contours of river valleys or coastlines (to find easy grades), and with low initial costs began to evaporate, and engineers were faced with calls to cross mountain ranges, span rivers, and traverse wide tracts of level, though unstable, marshland. This last mentioned geographical hazard had been encountered on one of the first railroads, the Liverpool & Manchester, which crossed the notorious Chat Moss peat bog. The methods by which George Stephenson finally conquered this obstacle became the pattern for dealing with similar difficulties in many parts of the world.
Many of the engineering problems were entirely new. The established professional men had built harbors, lighthouses, roads, and canals, but the introduction of the steam locomotive brought new demands. There was a limit to the steepness of the grades it could climb, for while a military road for foot soldiers, pack horses, or even elephants could be taken up a steep mountainside, such a route was impossible for locomotives. Surveys to obtain a practicable grade often had to be made in extremely difficult physical conditions: in the hill country at the foot of mountain ranges or in dense forests, where there were few opportunities for obtaining long sights ahead or for taking levels. Nor could established concepts like the suspension bridge be used for crossing broad valleys or tidal waterways. New ideas for long-span bridges had to be formed.
It is interesting to trace how the principles of construction and early operation, which developed in Great Britain, the USA, and Europe, were gradually extended and adapted to geographical and other conditions around the world. In Britain, conditions and prospects for expansion called for massively built, and relatively straight and level railroads, and there was plenty of capital ready for investment in such enterprises. In the USA, by contrast, railroads were needed to open up the virgin country. Little money was available, however, so tracks had to be built as cheaply as possible with indigenous materials. U.S. heavy industry was in its infancy and could hardly afford large-scale imports. One outcome was the evolution of that masterwork of light civil engineering, the wooden trestle bridge, so skillfully erected across many a deep valley or mountain torrent. Similarly, because of the infrequency of train services and the need to avoid high capital expenditure, engineers developed the system of regulating traffic by telegraphic "train order," in contrast to the more comprehensive system of signaling and interlocking that was essential on the much busier routes of western Europe.
As the railroad networks spread, so the natural geographical resources of the world became part of the overall picture. The conveyance of coal was the first task of railroads in Great Britain and France, and although horses did much of the hauling in the very early days, coal was the locomotive fuel. In the USA, although major deposits of coal had been discovered in certain areas, the vastness of the country made its transport to other parts uneconomic, so the great majority of early American locomotives burned the indigenous fuel of the forests wood. Thus environmental considerations were in evidence from the earliest days. Those in Great Britain who opposed railroads on principle, secured the insertion of clauses in Acts of Parliament prohibiting the emission of smoke by steam locomotives. To comply with such limitations, locomotives were fueled with coke in place of coal.
Out of this deeply interesting historical foundation, there emerges the majestic edifice of steady technical development, the evolution of codes of practice to ensure the safe running of trains at speeds that even our own grandfathers would not have thought possible. The replacement of steam traction by diesel and electric power became inevitable in the modern age. In recording this, and in recalling some of the grandest moments of the steam era, tribute is paid to one of the most wonderful and most "human" of machines ever devised and used by man.
This book highlights some of the major engineering achievements and great trains of the past. But there are modern developments, too: the purpose built, high-speed lines in Europe and the Far East, the conveyor-belt functions of heavy-duty mineral lines like the Hammersley Railroad in Australia and the Powder River Basin developments in the USA, and the fast low-cost "doublestack" container trains introduced in the USA. Today, railroads around the world are once again a very important feature on the map.