Did Europe's Jews go passively to their deaths? How did Nazi anti-Semitism evolve into mass murder? How important was Hitler's own hatred of the Jews in creating the Final Solution? Why didn't the Allies aggressively try to save Jews before the war's end? Michael R. Marrus, in the first comprehensive assessment of the vast historical literature on the Holocaust, tackles explosive issues and tortured memories, handling them with judiciousness and sensitivity. Drawing on the entire range of historical literature on this subject, he comments upon the questions that have troubled observers over the years. By applying the tools of historical, sociological, and political analysis, he presents a balanced but eye-opening treatment of many highly charged topics on the Holocaust, including the role of collaborationist governments, the Roman Catholic Church, the local populations, Jewish ghetto leadership, and the Jews themselves.