In 1861, many people believed the Civil War would be short and glorious. By the time of the South's defeat in 1865, it had proven long and bloody. While the soldiers in the field won and lost battles, women and men who did not fight carried out vital work to further the war efforts of both North and South. In the North, factories and businesses boomed, making supplies for the soldiers, but provided few benefits for civilians. Life in the South, where many of the battles raged, was hard, with food scarce and travel difficult. Newspapers and photos brought the war home to everyone.