ISBN-10:
0073405264
ISBN-13:
9780073405261
Pub. Date:
06/13/2007
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology / Edition 7

The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology / Edition 7

by John Relethford

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780073405261
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 06/13/2007
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 576
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 9.70(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

Dr. John Relethford holds the rank of Distinguished Teaching Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the State University of New York College at Oneonta, and has received a SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching. He received his BA (1975), MA (1978), and Ph.D. (1980) degrees in anthropology from the State University of New York at Albany. His textbook, The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology, was first published in 1990, and is currently in the eighth edition. He has also written Genetics and the Search for Modern Human Origins and Reflections of Our Past: How Human History is Revealed in Our Genes, and is coauthor of Human Biological Variation. In addition, he has authored or coauthored over 80 peer-reviewed journal articles, 18 book chapters, and numerous book reviews and other publications. He has served as both President and Vice-President of both the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and the American Association of Anthropological Genetics. He has served on the editorial boards of many journals, and is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Table of Contents

Preface

PART I
Evolutionary Background

Chapter 1
Biological Anthropology and Evolution

What is Anthropology?

Biology and Culture

Variation

Evolution

Adaptation

The Subfields of Anthropology

Science and Evolution

Characteristics of Science

The Development of Evolutionary Theory

Evidence for Evolution

Science and Religion

Special Topic: Biological Anthropologists at Work

Summary


Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 2
Human Genetics

Molecular Genetics

DNA: The Genetic Code

Chromosomes and Genes

The Human Genome Project

Mendelian Genetics

Genotypes and Phenotypes

Predicting Offspring Distributions

Chromosomes and Inheritance

The Genetics of Complex Physical Traits

Mutations

Evolutionary Significance of Mutations

Types of Mutations

Rates of Mutations

Genetics and Behavior

Special Topic: PCR and Ancient DNA

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

CELL BIOLOGY: A Review

Chapter 3
Evolutionary Forces

Population Genetics

What is a Population?

Genotype Frequencies and Allele Frequencies

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

The Evolutionary Forces

Mutation

Natural Selection

Genetic Drift

Gene Flow

Interaction of the Evolutionary Forces

Special Topic: Tay-Sachs Disease: Genetic Drift or Natural Selection?

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 4
The Evolution and Classification of Species

The Birth and Death of Species

What is a Species?

Species Change

Speciation

Adaptive Radiation

The Tempo and Mode of Macroevolution

Extinctions and Mass Extinctions

Misconceptions about Evolution

The Nature of Selection

Structure, Function, and Evolution

Classification of Species

Taxonomic Categories

Methods of Classification

Approaches to Classification

Special Topic: Science Fiction and Orthogenesis

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

PART II
Our Place in Nature

Chapter 5
The Primates

Characteristics Of Mammals

Reproduction

Temperature Regulation

Teeth

Skeletal Structure

Behavior

Primate Characteristics

The Skeleton

Vision

The Brain and Behavior

Primate Behavior

Primate Behavioral Ecology

Reproductive Strategies

Growing Up

Social Groups

Social Behaviors

Special Topic: Primates in Danger

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 6
Primate Diversity

Primate Suborders

Prosimians

Anthropoids

An Alternative Classification

The Monkeys

New World Monkeys

Old World Monkeys

The Hominoids

Hominoid Characteristics

Classification of the Hominoids

The Living Apes

Gibbons

Orangutans

Gorillas

Chimpanzees

Bonobos

Special Topic: Social Structure and Testes Size in Primates

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 7
The Human Species

Characteristics of Living Humans

Distribution and Environment

Brain Size and Structure

Bipedalism

Canine Teeth

Sex and Reproduction

Social Structure

The Human Life Cycle

Prenatal Growth

The Pattern of Human Postnatal Growth

The Evolution of Human Growth

Menopause

Is Human Behavior Unique?

Tool Use and Manufacture

Do Apes Have Culture?

Language Capabilities

Special Topic: Humans and Apes—What Genes are Different?

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

PART III Our Origins

Chapter 8
Paleoanthropology

Dating the Past

Relative Dating Methods

Chronometric Dating Methods

Reconstructing the Past

Interpreting Fossils

Interpreting Behavior

Life Before the Primates

The Origin of Life

Vertebrate Evolution

Special Topic: A Perspective on Geologic Time

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 9
Primate Origins and Evolution

Early Primate Evolution

Overview of Early Primate Evolution

Primate Origins

Anthropoid Origins

Evolution of the Miocene Hominoids

The Diversity of Miocene Hominoids

The Fossil Evidence

The Genetic Evidence

Conclusions

Special Topic: The Giant Ape

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 10 The Beginnings of Human Evolution

Overview of Human Evolution

The Fossil Evidence of Early Hominin Evolution

The First Hominins

Primitive Hominins

Hominin Diversity

Evolutionary Trends

Evolutionary Relationships

The Origin of Bipedalism

Special Topic: The Piltdown Hoax

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 11 The Origin and Evolution of the Genus Homo

The Origin of the Genus Homo

Homo habilis

Homo rudolfensis

Homo erectus

Distribution in Time and Space

Physical Characteristics

Cultural Behavior

A Dwarf Species of Homo erectus?

Middle Pleistocene Hominins

Distribution in Time and Space

Physical Characteristics

Cultural Behavior

Classification and Evolutionary Relationships

The Neandertals

Distribution in Time and Space

Physical Characteristics

Neandertal DNA

Cultural Behavior

Classification and Evolutionary Relationships

Special Topic: Neandertals: Names and Images

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 12 The Origin of Modern Humans

Anatomically Modern Humans

Distribution in Time and Space

Physical Characteristics

Cultural Behavior

The Modern Human Origins Debate

Location of the Transition to Modern Humans

Replacement or Assimilation?

Why Did Modern Humans Evolve?

Recent Biological and Cultural Evolution in Homo sapiens

Special Topic: The Iceman

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

PART IV Our Diversity

Chapter 13 The Study of Human Variation

Measuring Biological Variation

Red Blood Cell Polymorphisms

The HLA System

DNA Analysis

Complex Traits

Race and Human Variation

What is Race?

Problems with the Biological Race Concept

Classification and Racial Identification

What Use is the Race Concept?

Global Patterns of Human Genetic Variation

The Distribution of Human Genetic Variation

Geographic Distance and Human Genetic Variation

Special Topic: Genetics, Race, and IQ

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 14 Genetics, History, and Ancestry

The Genetic History of Populations

The Origin of Native Americans

The Origin of Polynesians

The Population History of Ireland

The Genetic History of Individuals

Was Anna Anderson the Missing Grand Duchess Anastasia?

Who Was Eston Heming’s Father?

The Genetic Legacy of Genghis Khan?

Genetic Ancestry and Cultural Identity

Genetic Ancestry of African Americans

What Does It Mean to Be Jewish?

Special Topic: Our Common Ancestry

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 15 Natural Selection in Human Populations

Natural Selection and Disease

Natural Selection, Sickle Cell, and Malaria

The Duffy Blood Group

The CCR5 Gene

Natural Selection and Skin Color

The Biology of Skin Color

The Distribution of Human Skin Color

The Evolution of Dark Skin

The Evolution of Light Skin

Natural Selection and Culture Change

Horticulture and the Sickle Cell Allele in Africa

Lactase Persistence and Lactose Intolerance

Special Topic: Are Humans Still Experiencing Natural Selection?

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 16 Human Adaptation

Climate and Human Adaptation

Physiologic Responses to Temperature Stress

Climate and Morphological Variation

Cultural Adaptations

High-Altitude Adaptation

High-Altitude Stresses

Physiologic Responses in Hypoxia

Physical Growth in High-Altitude Populations

Nutritional Adaptation

Basic Nutritional Needs

Variation in Human Diet

Malnutrition

Biological Costs of Modernization and Dietary Change

Special Topic: Cranial Plasticity—Did Boas Get it Right?

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

Chapter 17 Human Biology and Culture Change

The Biological Impact of Agriculture

Population Growth

Disease

The Biological Impact of Civilization

Urbanization and Disease

Culture Contact

Recent Changes

The Epidemiologic Transition

Secular Changes in Human Growth

The Reemergence of Infectious Disease

Demographic Change

Special Topic: The Baby Boom

Summary

Supplemental Readings

Virtual Explorations

EPILOGUE: The Future of Our Species

APPENDIX 1:
Mathematical Population Genetics

APPENDIX 2: Comparative Primate Skeletal Anatomy

APPENDIX 3:
Conversion Factors

Glossary

References

Credits

Index

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