The Imperial College Lectures In Petroleum Engineering - Volume 1: An Introduction To Petroleum Geoscience

The Imperial College Lectures In Petroleum Engineering - Volume 1: An Introduction To Petroleum Geoscience

by Michael Ala

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Overview

The Imperial College Lectures In Petroleum Engineering - Volume 1: An Introduction To Petroleum Geoscience by Michael Ala

This book covers the fundamentals of the earth sciences and examines their role in controlling the global occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbon resources. It explains the principles, practices and the terminology associated with the upstream sector of the oil industry. Key topics include a look at the elements and processes involved in the generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons and demonstration of how geological and geophysical techniques can be applied to explore for oil and gas. There is detailed investigation into the nature and chemical composition of petroleum, and of surface and subsurface maps, including their construction and uses in upstream operations. Other topics include well-logging techniques and their use in determining rock and fluid properties, definitions and classification of resources and reserves, conventional oil and gas reserves, their quantification and global distribution as well as unconventional hydrocarbons, their worldwide occurrence and the resources potentially associated with them. Finally, practical analysis is concentrated on the play concept, play maps, and the construction of petroleum events charts and quantification of risk in exploration ventures.As the first volume in the Imperial College Lectures in Petroleum Engineering, and based on a lecture series on the same topic, An Introduction to Petroleum Geoscience provides the introductory information needed for students of the earth sciences, petroleum engineering, engineering and geoscience.This volume also includes an introduction to the series by Martin Blunt and Alain Gringarten, of Imperial College London.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781786342065
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd
Publication date: 07/17/2017
Pages: 324
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

About the Author ix

Acknowledgements xi

Book Description xix

Introduction to the Imperial College Lectures in Petroleum Engineering xxi

Chapter 1 Introduction to Geology 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Shape, Internal Structure, and Composition of the Earth 1

1.3 How Old is the Earth? 6

1.4 The Earth's Crust (Lithosphere) 7

1.5 Formation of Igneous Rocks 8

1.6 Formation of Metamorphic Rocks 10

1.7 The Rock Cycle 11

1.8 Sedimentary Rocks: Key Features and Terminology 13

1.8.1 Formation 13

1.8.2 Sedimentary environment 13

1.8.3 Fauna and flora 15

1.9 Common Sedimentary Rocks 16

1.9.1 Sandstone 16

1.9.2 Carbonates 16

1.9.3 Shale 22

1.9.4 Evaporites 22

1.9.5 Coal 23

1.10 Lithification of Sediments into Sedimentary Rocks 23

1.10.1 Compaction 25

1.10.2 Cementation 25

1.10.3 Dolomitisation 26

1.11 Geological Time 27

1.11.1 Absolute time 27

1.12 Stratigraphic Practice 31

1.12.1 Stratigraphic relationships 37

1.12.2 Sequence stratigraphy 41

1.13 Correlation 45

1.14 Principles of Structural Geology 47

1.14.1 Folds 48

1.14.1.1 Anticline 48

1.14.1.2 Syncline 53

1.14.1.3 Monocline 54

1.14.2 Faults 54

1.14.3 Thrusts 58

1.14.4 Structures formed by the movement of evaporitic rocks 60

References 62

Chapter 2 Controls on Oil and Gas Occurrence: Sedimentary Basins and Plate Tectonics 65

2.1 Factors that Determine Hydrocarbon Formation 65

2.2 Geological Controls on Oil and Gas Occurrence 65

2.2.1 Source rocks 65

2.2.2 Reservoir rocks 66

2.2.3 Traps 66

2.2.4 Seals or cap rocks 66

2.3 Sedimentary Basins 66

2.3.1 Definition and origin 66

2.3.2 Characteristics 70

2.3.3 Depositional history 70

2.3.4 Sedimentary basins and hydrocarbons 72

2.4 Plate Tectonics and the Formation and Evolution of Sedimentary Basins 73

2.4.1 Overview of plate tectonics 74

2.4.2 Influence of plate tectonic setting on sedimentary basin characteristics 84

2.4.3 Distribution of fossil faunae, florae and other geological features 85

2.4.4 Plate tectonics and mountain formation 86

References 90

Chapter 3 Chemical Composition of Petroleum 91

3.1 Introduction 91

3.2 Alkanes 92

3.3 Alkenes 93

3.4 Cycloalkanes 95

3.5 Aromatics 95

3.6 Sulphur Compounds 96

3.7 Nitrogen, Oxygen and Metallic Compounds 97

Reference 98

Chapter 4 Petroleum System Analysis 99

4.1 Introduction 99

4.1.1 Elements 99

4.1.2 Processes 100

4.1.3 Significance of oil and gas seeps 100

4.2 Source Rocks and Generation of Petroleum 103

4.2.1 Types of kerogen 109

4.2.2 Estimating the time of hydrocarbon generation 112

4.3 Migration of Petroleum 115

4.4 Reservoir Rocks 116

4.4.1 Porosity 117

4.4.2 Permeability 120

4.4.3 Porosity-permeability relationship 122

4.4.4 Effects of fracturing on reservoir properties 124

4.5 Traps 127

4.5.1 Structural traps 127

4.5.2 Stratigraphic traps 137

4.5.3 Combination traps 139

4.5.4 Traps associated with salt movement 142

4.6 Seals 147

4.7 The Petroleum Play 148

4.8 The Petroleum Events Chart 153

References 156

Chapter 5 Exploring for Oil and Gas 159

5.1 Introduction 159

5.2 Geological Sources 159

5.3 Remote Sensing 160

5.4 Geophysical Techniques 163

5.4.1 Gravity surveying 163

5.4.2 Magnetic surveying 165

5.4.3 Seismic surveys 166

5.4.3.1 Propagation of waves at an interface 170

5.4.3.2 Types of seismic survey 174

5.4.3.3 Seismic data processing 174

5.4.3.4 Seismic interpretation 176

5.4.3.5 Seismic stratigraphy 179

5.5 Sub-surface Contour Maps 183

5.5.1 Types of contour maps 184

5.5.1.1 Structure contour maps 184

5.5.1.2 Isopach maps 187

5.5.1.3 Fades maps 189

5.5.1.4 Isoporosity and isopermeability maps 192

5.6 Leads, Prospects and Risk Analysis 193

5.6.1 Risk analysis 197

5.7 Play Fairway Analysis (PEA) 198

References 200

Chapter 6 Resources and Reserves: Definition, Classification and Quantification 203

6.1 Introduction 203

6.2 Classification and Quantification of Reserves 204

6.3 Reserve Estimation 206

6.3.1 The deterministic approach 206

6.3.2 The probabilistic approach 212

6.4 Oil and Gas Reserves, Production and Consumption 217

6.4.1 Introduction 217

6.4.2 Oil reserves 217

6.4.3 Natural gas reserves 219

6.4.4 Global crude oil production and consumption 221

6.4.5 Global natural gas production and consumption 221

6.4.6 Biofuels 223

References 226

Chapter 7 The Unconventionals: Oil Shale, Shale Oil, Shale Gas, Oil Sands, Coal Bed Methane and Gas Hydrates 227

7.1 Introduction 227

7.2 Oil Shale, Shale Oil and Shale Gas 228

7.2.1 Distribution of tight oil and gas resources 230

7.3 Oil or Tar Sands 232

7.4 Coal Bed Methane 235

7.4.1 Global distribution of coal bed methane reserves and production 237

7.5 Gas Hydrates 238

References 241

Chapter 8 Introduction to Open-Hole Logs 243

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Definition and Types of Logs 244

8.2.1 Invasion effects 245

8.2.2 Open-hole log types 247

8.2.3 Terminology 248

8.2.4 Drilling fluid types and their effect on open-hole log data acquisition 250

8.3 Open-hole Log Interpretation 252

8.3.1 Qualitative interpretation 253

8.3.2 Quantitative interpretation 253

8.4 Open-hole Log Measurements and their Applications 253

8.4.1 Electric logs 253

8.4.2 Sonic or acoustic log 256

8.4.3 Radioactive logs 257

8.4.4 Dielectric and NMR logs 258

8.4.5 Dipmeter 260

8.4.6 Formation image logs 261

8.5 Summary of the Applications of Open-hole Log Interpretation Results 262

8.5.1 Basic quantitative open-hole log interpretation 263

8.5.2 Computer processing and interpretation 264

References 265

Glossary of Technical Terms and Abbreviations 267

Index 287

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