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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781466969049
Publisher: Trafford Publishing
Publication date: 12/12/2012
Pages: 186
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.40(d)

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The Inner World

Beyond the Prism of Senses: in Simple Words
By Mohammad Babaee

Trafford Publishing

Copyright © 2012 Mohammad Babaee
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-4669-6904-9

Chapter One

Beyond the Prism of Senses

Optic Channel

Is what we see a real world?

I hope that you don't get tired by reading the introduction about the five-sense physiology since we need to enter the territory of physiology and physics to achieve conclusion. However, I tried to explain the scientific subjects of the book in such a way that it makes these subjects understandable.

Vision is one of the most important and reliable human senses; it forms 50 percent of our beliefs in a way that people believe in whatever this channel perceives, as well as deny whatever they cannot perceive via this sense. It is good to know that most of the ideas and theories related to the world, afterworld, physics, metaphysics, beings, God, angels, etc., are mainly based on the assumption that visual sense is real and perfect. Therefore, most of theoreticians in physics and metaphysics fields have discussed the world and existing universe from this point of view. Ugly and beautiful, light and darkness, colors, social conventions, shadows, the beauty of a flower or a bird, organic and nonorganic —these originate from this sense. However, do these things show reality? Do we see truly and perfectly? Are the things we see real? In order to get under way to know the totality of ourselves, we must become familiar with the mechanism of our optic channel in order to find a way to discover internal and external secrets. How can we assess the validity of our beliefs or others' thoughts if what we see is not trustable? Review your thoughts and beliefs and then say how much of them are based on the signs which are received via optic channel.

The Physiology of Eyes

Optic Channel

Eyes are the main part of the optic channel. Beings are excited by light; eyes picture the world for our perception and connect us to the external world via a restricted spectrum of waves. The light is projected on the retina after being reflected from nonluminous things or eradiation of luminous things; subsequently, a spectral image of objects and the surroundings is formed.

The retina is made of two layers. The first layer, the slimmer one, is called the pigmented layer. This layer is located between the retina and choroid and contains melanocytes that are in charge of the color black. These pigments cause all lights being absorbed by the eye, and it acts as a darkroom. The second layer, which is thicker as it consists of ten other layers, is called the sensitive retina. In this layer, there are two kinds of light-sensitive cells (photoreceptors) which are known as rods and cones. The diameter of cone and rod cells is about 4.5 microns. Cones that are concentrated in the central part of retina are sensitive to intensive light and provide our eyesight during daylight. These cells are in charge of discerning color. The macula is located in the center of the retina, where most of the cones are. Fovea (yellow stain) is a small concavity in the center of the macula which contains most of the cones. The macula is in charge of central vision and distinguishing colors and details. In dimness, our eyesight is sensitive to blue light rather than red light. Generally, red cones consist of 64 percent of the eye's cone cells; 34 percent of cones are green and only 2 percent of them are blue, but blue cones are more sensitive than the other ones. In most parts of the eye, red, green, and blue cones have formed a cluster shape adjacent to each other. However, in the fovea, the number of blue cones is reduced remarkably. There are approximately six millions cones in our retina. Around the central part of retina, there are about 125 million cells, which are called rods. Sensitivity of these cells to the low light makes our vision possible during the nighttime.

The high density of rods around the retina makes peripheral regions more sensitive, with due attention to the slight light variations in the night. Hence, in order to distinguish peripheral movements better, you must indirectly look to the intended place. This is a way that soldiers can identify enemies in the night. Since, in these conditions, an image will be formed around the retina where rod cells are gathered, it increases the power of eyesight for distinguishing variation and peripheral movements. You must also prevent directly looking under the high illumination for seeing aura around the body for it has a little light. There are three kinds of cone cells; each of them will give ultimate response to only one of three main colors (red, green, and blue).

Each type is sensitive to a different range of wavelengths with maximums corresponding to 570 nm (red), 535 nm (green), and 445 nm (blue). In addition, there is a chemical material (rhodopsin) in rods with the ultimate light absorption of 505 nm; rods are composed of a protein and a special kind of vitamin A attached. The function of light-sensitive materials in cones and rods is almost the same. We discuss the function of rhodopsin here.

Rhodopsin is shaped by forming a connection between a kind of vitamin A (11-cis-retinal) and scotopsin (protein). When the light collides with rhodopsin, the retinal zone absorbs the light and a connection between 11-cis-retinal and scotopsin is broken. It makes rhodopsin active, so it decomposes to metarhodopsin. Then 11-cisretinal changes into all-trans-retinal, which is not sensitive to light at all; the transfiguration is accompanied by some sort of enzyme, and chemical chain reactions stimulate bipolar cells. Bipolar cells establish synaptic connections to the other kinds of nervous cells, or so-called ganglion cells. The axons of ganglion cells converge as they leave the eyes as an optic nerve. During this chemical cycle, again, all-trans-retinal reshapes 11-cis-retinal; thus, they will be able to be combined with scotopsin. Consequently, rhodopsin will recover. This process makes photoreceptors inactive for a short time and they lose their sensitivity to light. It is known as photoreceptor compatibility.

Photoreceptors are made of two sections: inner and outer segments. The inner segment pumps sodium ions continuously to the outside of the cell. This causes negative potential differentiation in the cell.

Conversely, the outer segment, which is toward the retina and is exposed to the light, is penetrable to sodium ions in darkness. Hence, sodium ions with a positive electrical charge will penetrate into the cells and neutralize the negative charge of the cells. When rhodopsin of the outer segment is exposed to the light, it begins to decompose, and this will reduce the conductivity of sodium ions from the outer segment. Therefore, the number of exported ions from the inner segment becomes greater than imported sodium ions to the outer segment. This produces a negative charge in the cells, which in turn stimulates the nerves.

The stronger the radiated light, the more rhodopsin will be decomposed there. Thus, penetrability of the external membrane in relation to sodium ions will reduce. This increases the number of negative ions up to its ultimate degree—eighty millivolts—compared to the outer part of the cell.

After entering the darkness, sensitivity of the retina will increase 10 times after one minute, 6,000 times after twenty minutes, and 125,000 times after forty minutes.

The human brain is able to compensate for this deficiency by continuous movements of the eyes as a small steady fluctuation. When a cell becomes compatible with the light, it interchanges with another cell, which is still sensitive to light, until the rest duration (dark state) finishes.

Elimination of this fluctuation annihilates eyesight. Of course, if the speed of these movements becomes faster than the specified range, images will lose their clarity. Precisely, an image should be completely fixed for a short period in order to make synaptic connections between photoreceptors and neurons possible. Indeed, our eyes act as a camera that transforms fixed images to the brain; consequently, the brain makes a moving picture by attaching these images together.

The eyes give us three kinds of information from the environment:

1. The colors of objects, which in fact illustrate their different atomic structures

2. Volume, shape, location, and solidity of things

3. Spatial dimensions and size

A. Color of Objects

One of the foundations and origins of the world's beauty is color. Color gives meaning to our life; in addition, it excites our feelings and brings variety to our life. We make ourselves up by colors; people believe that each color has its own specific interpretation.

Color even has entered into the metaphysical realm and has found a special place among its believers up to the extent that they consider it heavenly. You can see how perceptions of the optic channel have grounded our beliefs' foundations related to our lives and how they have overshadowed our knowledge and judgments. Have you ever asked yourself what the nature of color is or whether it is real or not?

Light is a form of energy. The unique characteristics of each photon are its wavelength and energy quantity; these are the only determinants which specify which of sensitive cells are to be stimulated and send nervous signals as the photon makes contact with photoreceptors. This organization in retina cells is due to the essence of chemical matter that exists in all kinds of photoreceptors. In fact, depending on the type of the cell which sends signals as well as the intensity of these signals, the brain will put a virtual label on it. In this manner, it perceives received signals transmitted by cone cells, which are sensitive to 430 nm, 540 nm, and 575 nm—blue, green, and red, in turn. This means that the energy which is needed for stimulation and initiation of a chemical action and reaction in photoreceptors—and, subsequently, in neurons—differs. Each cell only responds to a certain rate of energy, so light only provides the necessary energy for photoreceptors. It has nothing to do directly with color. In fact, colors are labels which our brain uses to detect the type of stimulated cell; they do not exist beyond our mind. Photoreceptors work as heat sensors and each of them is sensitive to a specific rate of energy. Moreover, the brain defines a distinguished color label for each group of sensors, and based on its definitions, it detects and separates different energy rates. In spite of the same nature of the waves, our brain perceives each of them as a unique color.

Visible light, which we are able to see, is confined to four hundred to seven hundred nanometers, which is only a small portion of a vast range of electromagnetic waves. These waves are too highly expanded to imagine; they just differ in rate of energy, frequency, and wavelength while they are similar in the nature of energy from which they are made of.

The energy rate of electromagnetic waves is obtained from the equation E = hf, where

E = wave energy

f = wave frequency

h = Planck's constant

Thus, the more the energy, the less the wavelength would be and vice versa. Therefore, if we suppose that energy has color, all electromagnetic waves, due to their similar nature, should have one unique color. However, it becomes lighter or darker due to the variation of energy quantity. What we actually observe is a collection of unique colors, of which they are not alike at all. Our brain then uses this sensory label, so-called color, in order to recognize wave energy differences better.

Molavi, in the sixth book of the Masnavi, says that discoloration is the essence and truth of all colors.

- Color does not exist.

- This is a discovery.

- This is a revelation of reality. It does not imply that no one had ever known this fact, but it shows that no one had ever noticed it and do not consider it for knowing himself.

- What we see as a world is completely different from what goes on outside of our minds.

- What we see is a mirage in wakefulness; there is no color in the world!

The credibility of our beliefs, logic, and judgments are dependent on the information we receive via our sense channels. Even the fundamentals of our reasoning are based on our faith in these senses, whereas they are not real! Honestly, our logic has been based on illusion for many years. Now you must have found out the reason I have initiated self-knowledge from sense inspection. Do not judge until you reach to the last page. Many schools, directly or indirectly, have pointed to this subject. However, who cares?

In the Quran (the holy book), life is called a "game" in this world.

"You don't even know what will happen tomorrow. What is your life? It is a mist that appears for a little while. Then it disappears" (James 4:14, the Bible).

Don Juan Matus introduces the world as a dream of our mind. According to him, the world is a dream which has been created in our mind as the result of our beliefs.

In mystical literature, we have the following:

I asked the condition of the world from a wise man. He said, "It is an illusion, a dream, or a legend." "Tell me the states of my life," I said. "It is a flash, a candle, or a butterfly," he said. "Why these people have attached to it?" I said. "They are drunk, blind, or mad," he said.

Meanwhile, there is a profound relationship between colors and our psychic state. We discuss some of them here:

Dark blue: deep feeling, domination, self-determination, and a sensitive nature

Green: stability, stamina, inclination, pride, and ambition

Red: enthusiasm for living, great desires, bravery, goodwill, jealousy, animosity, sexual passion, and worry

Yellow: hope to solve problems, self-praising, fond of praise, hates criticism, dependent, activity and changeability, unfounded expectations, happy, and cheerful

Black: indifferent to life, disproving of everything, pessimism, doubt, obstinacy, denial of self, disregarding, surrender, and giving up

The one who chooses black wants to deny everything because he feels that everything is not what it should be.

Why Do Things Have a Fixed Color?

The reflection of light from materials looks like a ball, which is sent back from a wall toward us. This implies the existence of a barrier in a distinguished distance from us that causes such reflection without giving any information about the color or the other characteristics of the barrier. The reflection of collided light waves from an object's surface acts as a bridge, which is the only connection between distant things and us. This reflection draws a shadow from dimensions and appearances of the objects in our retina without displaying their natures, colors, and details. Please pay attention to the following picture:

As you can see in the figure above, some pellets with a diameter of 2 and 3 cm are thrown turn by turn toward three netting barriers—A, B, and C—with hole dimensions of 1, 2.7, and 3.3 cm, respectively. As soon as they make contact with netting A, all pellets return to the waxy surface with a definite angle due to the small size of the netting holes. The collisions create a virtual image of netting on the waxy surface, which expresses its overall appearance. Due to the larger holes of netting B, the smaller pellets pass through, whereas it just reflects the larger pallets. In addition, netting C reflects none of them. That is why the waxy surface does not show any image of netting C.

In nature, different materials act as netting in which their atom characteristics determine the size of pores. Molecular arrangement is like netting and light acts as a pellet as well. The shorter the wavelength is, the bigger its power of penetrability will be. Thus, it can penetrate materials better and go through them (e.g., an X-ray). The longer the wavelength is, the smaller the power of its penetrability is. Waves are either absorbed or reflected. In other words, each object, due to its constant atom type and molecular arrangement, always reflects definite wavelengths. Consequently, the established nerve signals are always fixed and the brain uses color sensory labels in order to detect and classify received signals precisely.

Seeing does not occur in the eyes; eyes just are the means to translate reflected waves received from objects into nerve signals. Then our brain processes these signals in multiple points. There is no physical contact with light rays or objects. This abolishes any idea of similarity regarding the nature of colors between internal and external worlds.

In 1915, Albert Einstein, by introducing his famous formula, E = mc2 explained the relationship between matter and energy, where

E = energy

m = mass

c = speed of light (300,000 km/sec)

He proved that matter is nothing but energy in its compressed form and is apparently static—like a hurricane, which is apparently a static form of wind, with dimensions more definite than the passing wind.

The wind does not stay in one place by its movement, but a hurricane fills up definite space due to its circular movement and spinning. It seems motionless in spite of moving forward.

The unity in the structure of matter and energy implies that light and matter are alike in nature and our world is filled up with energy. Energy and matters are two sides of a coin. Energy has appeared in diversified forms in such a way that our brain takes these forms as matter and solid objects.

We float in an ocean of energy while we are a part of it; we are a constant and continuous part of this ocean, like a piece of ice floating in the water, whereas there is no difference between ice and water. The ice has preserved the totality of its own as an independent part. Actually, ice is a fraction of water molecules that can preserve the connection between its components and creates an independent collection out of water.

If we could see the molecules of water and ice, we would see that some of them have arranged a distinguished form in a definite place, though the connection between ice and water molecules has not been destroyed. In other words, you will see ice as a continuation of water and vice versa.

Comparable to ice, we are a pile of energy as well that has preserved our continuity in this ocean of energy while we are part of it. Let me put it in this way: We are the continuation of the being and being is the continuation of us.


Excerpted from The Inner World by Mohammad Babaee Copyright © 2012 by Mohammad Babaee. Excerpted by permission of Trafford Publishing. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents


Beyond the Prism of Senses....................1
The Physiology of Eyes....................3
A. Color of Objects....................9
Why Do Things Have a Fixed Color?....................13
Light and Luminance....................21
B. Volume, Shape, and Solidity of Objects....................26
C. Spatial Dimensions of Things and Size....................34
Space-Time Curvature....................51
Do you know where your eyes are?....................60
Sleep and Dream....................63
Dream or Reality....................69
Subconscious Mind....................74
Spiritual Dreaming....................85
Domination via Spiritual Dreaming....................88
Mastery of the Dream....................104
Influence on Acquaintances and Strangers....................110
Influence in Connecting with the Universe....................120
The Opposites....................122
Hearing Channel....................128
Physiology of Ears....................130
The Truth of the Voice....................133
Taste and Smell Channels....................141
Taste Physiology....................142
Tactile Channel....................154
A. Heat and Coolness....................156
Final Word....................169

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