The Interception of Vessels on the High Seas: Contemporary Challenges to the Legal Order of the Oceans

The Interception of Vessels on the High Seas: Contemporary Challenges to the Legal Order of the Oceans

by Efthymios Papastavridis

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781849466646
Publisher: Hart Publishing
Publication date: 08/01/2014
Series: Studies in International Law Series , #43
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 404
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.78(d)

About the Author

Efthymios Papastavridis is a part-time Lecturer, University of Thrace, Faculty of Law and Research Fellow at the Academy of Athens. He was appointed Director of the 2012 Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations (English-Speaking Section), The Hague Academy of International Law.

Table of Contents

Foreword Catherine Redgwell v

Preface to the Paperback Edition vii

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

List of Abbreviations xvii

Table of Cases xxi

Table of Treaties and other International Agreements xxvii

1 Introduction 1

I Introductory Remarks: Enquiring Maritime Interception on the High Seas 1

II Contemporary Challenges to the Freedom of the High Seas and Maritime Interception 4

A Terrorism and WMD 4

B Drug Trafficking 6

C Illicit Migration 8

D Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea 11

E IUU Fishing 12

F Are They All 'Threats to Maritime Security'? 13

III The Outline of the Book 15

2 The Theoretical Framework of the Right of Visit on the High Seas Mare Liberum v Mare Clausum Revisited 18

I The Historical Claims to Freedom, of the Seas 18

A From Antiquity to the Middle Ages 18

B The 'Battle of the Books' 20

C The Era of Consolidation and Codification of Mare Liberum 22

D The Legal Nature of the High Seas 23

E Concluding Observations 24

II Contemporary Right of Visit: Lessons from the Historical and the Theoretical Framework of Mare Liberum 24

A Mare Liberum v Mare Clausum: Antithetical or Complementary Concepts? 24

B Mare Clausum Concerns and the Contemporary Right of Visit on the High Seas 27

C The Claims for Maintenance of International Peace and Security 30

D The Claims for Protection of the Bon Usage of the Oceans 32

E The Claims for Maintenance of the Ordre Public of the States and of International Society 36

III Interference in the Contemporary Legal Order of the Oceans: Concluding Remarks 39

3 The Law of Maritime Interception on the High Seas 41

I Introductory Remarks 41

II The Right of Visit on the High Seas in Wartime 42

A The Law of Naval Warfare in the Past and in the Present 43

B The Role of the UN Charter in the Contemporary Law of Naval Warfare 45

C The Applicability of LOSC in the Law of Naval Warfare 46

D The Belligerent Right of Visit and Search: Rules and Procedures 47

E Concluding Thoughts 49

III The Right of Visit on the High Seas in Peacetime 50

A Treaty and Customary Law Framework of the Right of Visit 50

B Contemporary Challenges to the Customary Right of Approach 54

C The Right of Visit: The Contemporary Practice of Interception on the High Seas 60

D Other Legal Considerations in Maritime Interception Operations 73

E Concluding Remarks: Is there a Law of Maritime Interception? 81

4 Interception on the High Seas in the Context of Peace and Security: The Right of Visit in Cases of Armed Conflict and Security Council's Action 83

I Introductory Remarks 83

II The Belligerent Right of Visit and Search and its Contemporary Application in the Legal Order of the Oceans 84

A The Right of Visit in Cases of Armed Conflicts 84

B Maritime Enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions 96

C Unilateral Enforcement of UN Security Council Resolutions 106

III Conclusions 111

5 Contemporary Challenges to the International Peace and Security: International Terrorism and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction 113

I Introduction 113

II The Challenges of International Terrorism and WMD Proliferation 115

III Responses and Interdiction Operations within an Institutional Framework 119

A UN Security Council 119

B NATO and Operation Active Endeavour 127

C The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 129

D CARICOM 136

IV Responses and Interdiction Operations beyond International Organisations 139

A The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) 139

B Bilateral Boarding Agreements 143

V Legal Justifications for Unilateral Interdiction Measures under General International Law 148

A Law of the Sea 148

B The Right of Self-Defence 149

C Other Circumstances Precluding the Wrongfulness of Interdiction under the Law of State Responsibility 154

VI Additional International Legal Issues: Use of Force, Enforcement Jurisdiction and Human Rights 157

VII Concluding Remarks 160

6 Maritime Interception to Safeguard the Fundamental Freedoms of the High Seas 161

I Introduction 161

II The Case of Piracy Jure Gentium as a Threat to the Freedom of Navigation and Commerce 162

A The Definition of Piracy under International Law 162

B The Interception of Pirate Vessels under International Law 166

C The Assertion of jurisdiction Over Pirates 168

D The Extraordinary Case off Piracy in Africa 170

E Conclusions 196

III IUU Fishing as a Threat to the Freedom of Fishing 197

A Introduction: The Problem of IUU Fishing 197

B The LOSC and the 1995 Straddling Stocks Agreement 199

C The RFMOs 202

D Concluding Remarks 203

7 Interception on the High Seas to Counter Drug Trafficking 205

I Introduction 205

II International Legal Justifications for Interference with Drug Smuggling on the High Seas 206

A Multilateral Treaty-Law Bases for Interception 206

B Bilateral Treaty-Law Bases for Interception 226

C Customary Law Bases for Interception 237

III Additional International Legal Issues in the Course of Interception Operations 241

A The Question of the Use of Force 242

B Human Rights Restrictions 242

C Jurisdictional Issues Involved 245

IV Concluding Remarks 258

8 Interception on the High Seas and Human Beings 259

I Introduction 259

II International Legal Justifications for Interference on the High Seas 263

A Treaty Bases for Interference 263

B Customary Law Bases for Interference 291

III Additional International Legal Issues in the Course of Interception Operations of Human Beings 301

A Use of Force and Interception of Human Beings 301

B The Principle of Non-Refoulement and Human Beings on the High Seas 302

IV Concluding Remarks 308

9 Conclusions 309

Bibliography 315

Index 345

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