Now the headquarters of the Jicarilla Apache, Dulce (meaning “sweet” in Spanish) was named by the impoverished and relocated Indians who associated the place with the sugar and candy that came with government-supplied rations. Since the establishment of the reservation in 1887, Dulce has become the hub of everything associated with the Jicarillas. From the early timber operations, farming, and livestock raising, the Jicarilla Apache have become an economic powerhouse of northern New Mexico. Dulce is now a community living in two worlds, fully immersed in the American mainstream economy with a world-class hunting lodge, significant oil and gas operations, and widely diversified investments while fiercely maintaining the centuries-old language, culture, religion, and ceremonies of Jicarilla Apache Indians.
About the Author
Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, PhD, and Mary M. Velarde, both members of the Jicarilla Apache Nation, chronicle the 1887–2000 history of the Jicarilla Apache through this pictorial history using more than 180 photographs from government archives, libraries, and tribal and family collections. Tiller is author of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe: A History and The Culture and Customs of Apache Indians, and she is the publisher of Tiller’s Guide to Indian Country. Velarde has her master of arts degree in fine arts from American University in Washington, DC, and is a graphic designer.
Table of Contents
1 Early Years: 1887 to 1933 11
2 Settling In: 1934 to 1959 37
3 Moving to Dulce: 1960 to 1984 67
4 Modern Times: 1985 to 2000 97
Recommended Reading 127