The Kidneys and the Renal System

The Kidneys and the Renal System

by Kara Rogers

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781615306794
Publisher: Britannica Educational Publishing
Publication date: 12/15/2011
Series: Britannica Human Body Series
Pages: 176
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.60(d)
Age Range: 14 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Introduction x

Chapter 1 Anatomy of the Kidneys and Renal System 1

The Kidneys 1

Anatomical Location of the Kidneys 4

The Renal Capsule 4

Renal Vessels and Nerves 5

Internal Configuration: The Renal Pyramid 7

Internal Configuration: The Renal Pelvis 8

Minute Structure: The Nephron and Loop of Henle 8

Minute Structure: The Renal Collecting Tubules 12

Intrarenal Network of Blood Vessels 13

The Ureters 16

General Characteristics 16

Structure of the Ureteric Wall 16

The Urinary Bladder 17

General Description 18

Blood and Nerve Supplies 19

Structure of the Bladder Wall 20

The Urethra 21

General Description 23

Structure of Urethral Wall 24

Chapter 2 Development and Function of the Kidneys and Renal System 27

Development of the Renal System 27

Regulatory Functions of the Kidneys 29

Renal Blood Circulation 32

Intrarenal Blood Pressures 33

Factors that Affect Renal Flow 33

Glomerular Pressure 35

The Role of Hormones in Renal Function 36

Biological Considerations 41

Chapter 3 The Physiology of Urinary Excretion 44

Principal Features of Urine and its Excretion 44

Formation and Composition of Urine 48

Relative Composition of Plasma and Urine in Normal Men 48

Glomerular Filtration 49

Tubule Function 51

Effect of Tubular Reabsorption on Urine (Illustrative 24-Hour Figures) 51

Reabsorption from the Proximal Tubule 52

Reabsorption From the Loop of Henle 56

Reabsorption from the Distal Convoluted Tubule 56

The Concentration of Urine 57

Tubular Secretion 60

Regulation of Acid-Base Balance 61

Volume and Composition of Urine 64

Some Urine Constituents (g/24 Hours) 65

Urine Collection and Emission 69

The Bladder 70

Bladder Function in Urination 72

Neural Control of Urination 73

Chapter 4 Renal Disorders of Fluid Regulation and Urinary Function 75

Effects of Abnormal Renal Function on Body Fluid 75

Dehydration 80

Diabetes Insipidus 84

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone 86

Vascular Disease and Renal Function 88

Disorders of Urine Flow 89

Obstruction to the Flow of Urine 92

Kidney Stones 95

Enuresis 96

Urinary Tract Infection 98

Risk Factors 98

Causes 100

Symptoms and Diagnosis 100

Treatment 102

Other Factors in Urinary Tract Disease 102

Hematuria 103

Trauma 104

Chapter 5 Kidney Failure and Inflammatory and Malignant Renal Diseases and Disorders 105

Kidney Failure 106

Acute Failure 106

Chronic Failure 110

Inflammatory Diseases Affecting the Kidneys 114

Bright Disease 114

Pyelonephritis 118

Other Conditions Affecting the Kidneys and Renal System 119

Bartter Syndrome 119

Cystinuria 122

De Toni-Fanconi Syndrome 122

Diabetic Nephropathy 123

Iminoglycinuria 126

Nephrosclerosis 126

Nephrotic Syndrome 128

Renal Cyst 128

Renal Osteodystrophy 129

Uremia 130

Malignant Diseases of the Renal System 131

Bladder Cancer 132

Nephroblastoma 136

Renal Cell Carcinoma 137

Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma 139

Chapter 6 Evaluation and Treatment of Renal Diseases and Disorders 141

The Study of Renal Function 141

Evaluating Renal Function 143

Quantitative Tests 144

Renal Biopsy 149

Evaluation of Urinary-Function 150

Uroscopy and Urinalysis 151

Radiological and Other Imaging Investigations 153

Kidney Transplant 156

Transplantation and Postoperative Care 157

Data on Kidney Transplant Results 159

Dialysis 160

Conclusion 164

Glossary 165

Bibliography 167

Index 168

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