The fiftieth anniversary of the first publication of The Lord of the Rings, the enormously popular and influential masterpiece of fantasy by J.R.R. Tolkien, is celebrated in these twenty papers presented at the Marquette University Tolkien conference of 21-23 October 2004. They are published in honor of the late Dr. Richard E. Blackwelder, who gave his important Tolkien collection to the Marquette University Libraries, long a major center for Tolkien research. Half of the papers focus on The Lord of the Rings, while others investigate the larger body of Tolkien's achievements, as a writer of fiction, and one of the leading philologists of his day.
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Dick Blackwelder (1909-2001) was an entomologist and zoologist, whose 1978 encounter with Tolkien¿s writings led to his amassing a huge collection of secondary materials on Tolkien and the compilation of A Tolkien Thesaurus (1990). Since Marquette already owned most of the manuscripts for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, Blackwelder¿s bequest enhanced the Wisconsin university¿s already great importance for Tolkienian researchers. (Wayne Hammond¿s paper in the present collection discusses the importance of original manuscripts for the study of Tolkien¿s fiction and illumination of his life.) In celebration of Blackwelder¿s own work and financial contribution on behalf of Tolkienian scholarship, and to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of The Lord of the Rings, a 2004 conference brought together many of the most prominent scholars in this field. Publication of the resulting 20 papers has been subsidized by the Blackwelder endowment, which no doubt helps to keep down the cost of this attractively produced book. Readers interested in Tolkien¿s literary creativity will be interested in several essays. Paul Edmund Thomas shows that we owe Tolkien¿s publishers much gratitude, because their refusal to accept the Silmarillion materials as a follow-up to The Hobbit compelled Tolkien to conceive and to write The Lord of the Rings (in fits and starts). Thomas and the next essayist, John Rateliff, discuss the importance of the sense of antiquity (something Tolkien found basic in Beowulf) as central for Tolkien¿s fiction. (One would have appreciated a reference for his statement that Lord Dunsany was ¿one of Tolkien¿s favorite fellow fantasists.¿) Verlyn Flieger zeroes in on Tolkien¿s desire to provide fictional antiquarian explanations of the origins of his Middle-earth books (the Red Book of Westmarch, etc.), suggesting that the 1934 discovery of the Arthurian Winchester manuscript and its 1947 publication influenced not only this element of Tolkien¿s fiction but his wishes for a multi-volume format in which his fiction could be published. Christina Scull¿s paper is an enjoyable distillation of evidence of the History of Middle-earth series and Tolkien¿s letters, highlighting several remarkable changes from initial to final conceptions in LOTR. David Bratman¿s paper complements Scull¿s, examining changes made by Tolkien not only prior to publication of The Lord of the Rings but from the first edition to the second. Several essays take up the topic of class in Tolkien. John Garth focuses on Frodo¿s experiences as a transmutation of those of British soldiers in the Great War Garth notes in passing the typical wartime arrangement wherein officers had commissions for class reasons, while the privates actually possessed more experience relevant to the conditions of trench warfare. Marjorie Burns surveys the persistence of hierarchy (the ¿high,¿ the noble, the ancient) in Tolkien¿s fantasy, finding that Tolkien also rewards the meek and finds ways to break down ¿social division¿ (as she notes Christianity does). Jane Chance sees feudal contracts as recurrent in LOTR Gollum¿s homage to Frodo as Ringbearer, Merry¿s pledging of himself to Theoden, and Pippin¿s service to Denethor all show the deference of ¿third estate¿ (commons) figures to ¿first estate¿ (aristocracy) figures (and each of these commoners is ultimately disobedient, too). In two further papers, Gary Hunnewell contributes ¿Naysayers in the Works of Tolkien¿ and Matthew Fisher finds Tolkien ¿`working at the crossroads¿ of Northern courage [as seen in Beowulf] and the theology of Augustine¿ in LOTR. Much of Fisher¿s paper, however, is given to the exposition of Augustine and to excerpts on theological topics from Tolkien¿s letters perhaps a more extensive treatment of Augustinianism and of the pagan Northern theory of courage will appear eventually. This essay collection has no papers on the recent LOTR movies. The prominence t