The Magna Carta was the result of disagreements between the Pope and King John and his barons over the rights of the king: Magna Carta required the king to accept that the will of the king could be bound by law.
The Code of Hammurabi was a Mesopotamian legal code that laid a foundation for later Hebraic and European law.
The Magna Carta is widely considered to be the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law and is one of the most famous documents in the world.
Originally issued by King John of England (r.1199-1216) as a practical solution to the political crisis he faced in 1215, Magna Carta established for the first time the principle that everybody, including the king, was subject to the law.
Although nearly a third of the text was deleted or substantially rewritten within ten years, and almost all the clauses have been repealed in modern times, Magna Carta remains a cornerstone of the British constitution.
Most of the 63 clauses granted by King John dealt with specific grievances relating to his rule. However, buried within them were a number of fundamental values that both challenged the autocracy of the king and proved highly adaptable in future centuries.
Most famously, the 39th clause gave all 'free men' the right to justice and a fair trial. Some of Magna Carta's core principles are echoed in the United States Bill of Rights (1791) and in many other constitutional documents around the world, as well as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) and the European Convention on Human Rights (1950).
This translation is considered to be the best and an excellent reference document for your library.
This is book 10 in the series of 150 books entitled " The Trail to Liberty. "
The following is a partial list (20 of 150) of books in this series on the development of constitutional law.
1. Laws of the town Eshnunna (ca. 1800 BC), the laws of King Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (ca. 1930 BC), and Old Babylonian copies (ca. 1900-1700 BC) of the Ur-Nammu law code
2. Code of Hammurabi (~1760 BCE) - Early Mesopotamian legal code
3. Ancient Greek and Latin Library - Selected works on ancient history, customs and laws.
4. The Civil Law, tr. & ed. Samuel Parsons Scott (1932) - Includes the classics of ancient Roman law: the Law of the Twelve Tables (450 BCE)
5. "Constitution" of Medina (Dustur al-Madinah), Mohammed (622)
6. Policraticus, John of Salisbury (1159), various translations - Argued that citizens have the right to depose and kill tyrannical rulers.
7. Constitutions of Clarendon (1164) - Established rights of laymen and the church in England.
8. Assize of Clarendon (1166) - Defined rights and duties of courts and people in criminal cases.
9. Assize of Arms (1181) - Defined rights and duties of people and militias.
10. Magna Carta (1215) - Established the principle that no one, not even the king or a lawmaker, is above the law.
11. Britton, (written ~1290, printed ~1530)
12. Confirmatio Cartarum (1297) - United Magna Carta to the common law
13. The Declaration of Arbroath (1320) - Scotland's declaration of independence from England.
14. The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli (1513) - Practical advice on governance and statecraft
15. Utopia, Thomas More (1516)
16. Discourses on Livy, Niccolò Machiavelli (1517 tr. Henry Neville 1675)
17. Relectiones, Franciscus de Victoria (lect. 1532, first pub. 1557) - Provided the basis for the law of nations doctrine.
18. Discourse on Voluntary Servitude, Étienne De La Boétie (1548, tr.)
19. De Republica Anglorum, Thomas Smith (1565, 1583) - describes the constitution of England under Elizabeth I
20. Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos (Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants)
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About the Author
King John lost the Duchy of Normandy to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of most of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the Capetian dynasty during the 13th century.
The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.