The Modernization of Working Times: Flexibility and Work Sharing in Finland

The Modernization of Working Times: Flexibility and Work Sharing in Finland

by Raija Julkunen, Jouko Natti



Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789513905484
Publisher: SoPhi Academic Press
Publication date: 11/01/1999
Pages: 220
Product dimensions: 5.51(w) x 8.07(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction - Modernization, Politics and Policies9
The new landscape of working times9
Modernization and working times11
Our case: Finland15
Our data18
Finland in the 1990's19
Economic development - from multiple crises to survival19
The state and political steering23
Labour markets and working life - the long shadow of mass unemployment26
Industrial relations and labour market institutions30
The Finnish Working Time Regime35
The profile of Finnish working times35
Institutions and ideologies41
Finnish women did not disturb working time patterns44
Public child day care47
Continuities of dual earning48
Issues and agendas in the 1970s and 1980s51
The Arrival of Flexibility - the Breakthrough of 199355
From social scientific discussion to the initiative of employers55
Towards negotiated flexibility58
Local bargaining - the (g)localization of working times62
Categorizing the interests of firms65
Diffusion of flexibility68
The realities of flexibility70
Whose flexibility?74
Social costs and satisfaction74
More or less autonomy in working times?77
Flexibility and employment80
Work Sharing - A Buried Idea82
The main trends in Europe82
Differentiation between EU countries - sharing and activating84
Contradictions within the Union87
Public interest in work sharing89
Cautious Finns - the practical veto of employers could not be overcome91
Experimenting with New Models - Moral Manoeuvres or Permanent Innovations?98
Experiments as a means of social policy98
Subsidized part-time - a luxurious class of shorter hours100
How to increase part-time employment in Finland?100
From a modest start to "excessive" popularity?101
Part-time retirement - subsidizing the part-time employment of ageing workers104
Early retirement - in the service of individual and structural needs104
New attention paid to part-time retirement106
The six-hour shift - six hours as a full day's work109
An innovation with a splendid future behind it109
Experiments have concentrated on factory work111
No definite message114
Local authorities seek ways out116
Public services in recession116
Municipal working time experiments - with a little help from the State118
Experiences - not good enough?119
The comparison of the six-plus-six scheme in the private and public sectors123
Paid leave with job rotation - advantages for three parties124
Initiatives and examples124
Paid leave models in Belgium, Denmark and Finland126
Who benefits?129
Conclusion - temporary relief or lasting innovations?131
Multiple policies131
Women's time needs and options134
Continuities and Changes: Summary and Discussion of the 1990s137
A statistical portrait and beyond137
Adaptation of working hours to recession and recovery139
Lengthening working hours?141
Inside and outside the institutions of working time143
The dynamics of depoliticization145
The redefinition of the working time agenda145
Government and common interests147
Crisis, modernization, and the subpolitics of employers150
Time for New Risks?153
The return of old questions153
The erosion of social qualities of time156
Long hours - a statistical picture158
Family and marriage dynamics159
Knowledge intensive work161
The mechanisms of lengthening the working day - the displacement and replacement of the 'social'164
Organizational techniques165
Modernization processes166
New Chances - Flexible Life Courses169
Options for individuals - a neglected but emerging view169
The reinterpretation of opinions -a desire for self-regulation172
Accumulated leave176
Reconciling work and family lives177
Families that manage - with too little time177
.. and wish more flexibility179
Flexible working patterns for the ageing workforce181
Shorter and flexible hours?185
The Post-Tayloristic organization of time186
Two divergent cases189
The working less culture190
The Working Times of the New Century192
Goodbye to normal working time?192
The ever-escaping time prosperity?195
The empowerment of individuals198
New partnerships201
Regulation in a post-regulation society203

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