ISBN-10:
013112109X
ISBN-13:
9780131121096
Pub. Date:
07/14/2003
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
The Musical Classroom: Backgrounds, Models, and Skills for Elementary Teaching / Edition 6

The Musical Classroom: Backgrounds, Models, and Skills for Elementary Teaching / Edition 6

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The Musical Classroom: Backgrounds, Models, and Skills for Elementary Teaching / Edition 6

Assuming little or no musical background, this book demonstrates how music works–and how to convey this understanding to others. It helps learners develop skills in teaching music while offering them introductory experiences in playing and reading music. KEY TOPICS The book features over 170 songs, information on learning instruments, and sample lessons. Presented in a non-technical, user-friendly manner, Section I introduces music in the elementary school, the elements of music, music-making activities, curricular approaches and developments, the eclectic world of music, and how to plan and assess music learning. The instrumental instruction section provides information about playing Autoharp, guitar, baritone ukulele, piano, and soprano recorder, as well as information about the singing voice. It features descriptions of hand and body positions, fingerings, and strums, including keyboard drawings, chord frames, tuning instructions, and fingering charts; lists specific songs that may be used in learning to play each instrument individually or in large or small groups. For individuals teaching or preparing to teach music.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780131121096
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 07/14/2003
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 464
Product dimensions: 8.30(w) x 11.00(h) x 0.80(d)

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PREFACE:

PREFACE

To Instructors

The Musical Classroom: Backgrounds, Models, and Skills for Elementary Teaching, Fifth Edition, is designed primarily for use in a one-semester music course for the elementary education major and can also serve as a resource for music education majors and in-service teachers. The book is available by itself or as a book/CD package. The Musical Classroom helps students develop skills in music teaching while at the same time providing introductory experiences in playing and reading music.

WHAT'S IN THE MUSICAL CLASSROOM?

The text is divided into four sections and six appendixes.

Section One, Backgrounds for Teaching Music is an introduction to teaching music in the elementary classroom. The section begins with an introduction, "Music in the Elementary School," followed by a description of the elements of music and the music-making experiences that are the basis for the model experiences in Section Two. A chapter on "The World of Music" introduces students to the many styles of music and identifies their importance in the curriculum. The current approaches to elementary curriculum are concisely described, including the Kodaly and Orff approaches and the Gordon Learning Theory. The "Curricular Developments" chapter presents material for special learners and up-to-date information on music technology in the classroom. Also in this edition are discussions of cooperative learning, integrating music, the arts, and other subjects into the curriculum, and the pre-kindergarten child and music. The National Standards for Music Education, Grades K-4, are presented and integratedthroughout Section One. Section One concludes with an introduction to "Planning and Assessing Music Learning." Practical applications of the curricular approaches and developments presented in this section are highlighted throughout the model experiences of Section Two.

Section Two, Model Experiences for Teaching Music is a concrete expression of Section One, "Backgrounds for Teaching Music." Section Two consists of 48 model experiences, sequentially organized and based on the elements of music: melody, rhythm, harmony, form, and expressive qualities (tempo, dynamics, timbre). The 59 musical selections for the 48 model experiences are included on an accompanying CD (see p. 441). The model experiences may be taught in the college classroom by instructors or by students, with large or small groups. They may also be used in elementary classrooms. The model experiences move from simple to complex through three levels: I (Kindergarten and Grade 1), II (Grades 2 and 3), and III (Grades 4 and 5). Each model focuses on a single music concept and provides for assessing student learning through stated objectives and indicators for success. Key terms are identified. Learning may be expanded by using the Follow-Ups and the Projects for College Students that follow each model. A listing of "Related Literature and Media for Children" is included for many model experiences. Practical applications of the curricular approaches and developments presented in Section One are highlighted throughout the model experiences of this section.

Musical examples in the model experiences are from all styles: standard orchestral literature from Bach to Stravinsky, world music, American jazz, and folk and school songs that have proved their appeal to generations of students and teachers. Songs used in the model experiences are within the singing ranges specified for each of Levels I-III.

Section Three, Instruments provides introductory information about playing Autoharp, guitar, baritone ukulele, piano, and soprano recorder as well as information about the singing voice. There are descriptions of hand and body positions, fingerings, and strums, including keyboard drawings, chord frames, tuning instructions, and fingering charts. Lists of specific songs that may be used in a sequential music-reading and skills curriculum are presented for each instrument. These sequential lists identify songs by key, by number of chords/pitches, and by strumming patterns. All songs may be found in Section Four of the text.

Section Four, Songs features 135 songs from a variety of styles for use in the model experiences and instrumental work. Nearly all the favorite songs of the earlier editions are retained. and there are several songs new to this fifth edition.

Six Appendixes are presented, including (A) Reference Material for Music Fundamentals; (B) Evaluation Forms; (C) Descriptions of the Elementary Music Series; (D) A Collection of Chants, Proverbs, and Poems; (E) Timeline of Music and History; and (F) Resources. The text concludes with a Glossary, a list of the CD contents, and two Indexes.

HOW TO USE THE MUSICAL CLASSROOM IN YOUR COLLEGE CLASSROOM

The Musical Classroom, Fifth Edition, is designed primarily for the elementary education major with no music background. The authors suggest integrating Sections One to Four simultaneously. Descriptions of ways that instructors can use the various components follow.

Many instructors begin a course for the non-music major with a concise review, a presentation of the fundamentals of music, or both. Because college students often "teach as they have been taught," the authors recommend introducing model experiences (Level I) simultaneously with the fundamentals study. In this way, fundamentals work can continue while appropriate experiences for elementary school children are introduced. These Level I model experiences may be taught by the college instructor or by college students with music background, and at the conclusion of each model, students can review music fundamentals (in the Projects for College Students) in connection with the concept in the model experience.

To apply fundamentals to music making, the authors recommend simultaneously starting instrumental study (keyboard, soprano recorder, guitar, baritone ukulele) with the Level I model experiences. Some instructors may wish to have all students in a class study the same instrument; in that case, a particular instrumental focus of Section Three could be used. Guitar, soprano recorder, baritone ukulele, and keyboard are introduced, and lists of melodies in order of difficulty are presented. All specified melodies are in the text. For example, "The Keyboard" identifies many songs in the five-finger position, and "The Recorder" includes a list of nearly 50 songs.

Section Three's information about instruments can be used with an entire class, by small groups, or by individuals. If a class meets in a room with multiple keyboards, an instructor can use "The Keyboard" portion of Section Three. Other instructors may prefer to have students choose an instrument to learn and then study the instrument in small groups. For example, a recorder group could be utilizing "The Recorder" portion while a guitar group works with "The Guitar" portion. All instrumental groups could be working simultaneously or individual students could use a specific instrumental portion of Section Three and work on their own, with instructor guidance. A student who already plays one instrument can independently use this material to review previous skills (or to learn a new instrument) and can refer to the sequential lists of songs to locate material in the text.

The semester work might continue with the instrumental and music fundamentals study in combination with presentations of model experiences from Levels II-III given by students. Section One, "Backgrounds for Teaching Music," could be used at any point in the course, but introducing some of the material before students begin presenting model experiences may make music learning more meaningful.

Model experiences are designed to provide for maximum flexibility and usefulness. Additional music is listed at the end of each model experience under Other Music, and any of these selections may substitute for the musical example presented by the authors. Level I model experiences are designed for use with Kindergarten and Grade 1 students, but they may also serve older students as a review or an assessment of basic concepts, skills, and vocabulary. (When using Level I model experiences with older students, it would be appropriate to substitute musical examples that are age-appropriate for the older students.) Although statements to pupils are suggested (in capital letters in the text), these experiences are intended as models and should be modified to reflect varying learning objectives and styles. Indeed, college students are challenged to design their own model experiences using assignments that are included at the end of each level. These assignments suggest possible songs and orchestral selections to use and become more challenging at each successive level.

Instructors can assess student learning by using the numerous Projects for College Students. At the conclusion of each level I-III is an Evaluation for College Students, as well as assignments that provide guidelines for creating original lessons and evaluating elementary music series textbooks.

When instructors integrate the instrumental and music fundamentals study (Section Three, Appendix A, and Level I), conceptual music experiences for elementary school children (Section Two), and backgrounds on music in the elementary school (Section One), college students simultaneously develop their musical and teaching skills. Although this integration is advocated by the authors, college professors should obviously use the components of the text in any sequence or combination that will work for them.

To Students

The Musical Classroom, Fifth Edition, is designed for you, the prospective elementary school teacher. It assumes no background in music, but it does assume that you have a genuine interest in bringing music and children together.

You might think "How can I teach music? I cannot play the piano or even sing very well." One does not need to be an accomplished performer to teach music in the elementary classroom. You do need a fundamental understanding of how music "works," and you do need to know how to convey that understanding to others.

To help you prepare to teach tomorrow's children, The Musical Classroom includes model lessons in music that may be understood (and taught) with little or no musical background. In fact, it is possible to develop an understanding about music while teaching others. And this active involvement in teaching nearly always leads to a desire to develop performance skills. We believe it is possible to do all of these simultaneously: to develop an understanding about music, to share that understanding while teaching others, and to learn to play a musical instrument.

This text succeeds only when those who use it say, "We did it ourselves." As every journey begins with a single step, the use of this text represents that first step. Its music and models should be used to develop a philosophy and style so meaningful and so personal that the model will hardly be remembered. Only you, the learner, can plan the lifetime journey that will expand your musical literacy, refine your performance skills, and perfect your teaching skills. Those who love music and children with equal passion will always be able to develop their own ingenious means for bringing children into intimate touch with all the excitement of the world of music.

Table of Contents

TO STUDENTS, xi

TO INSTRUCTORS, xiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, xvi

SECTION ONE

Backgrounds for Teaching Music, 1

I MUSIC IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, 2

The Classroom Music Program, 3

Why Music in the Elementary School, 3

What Elementary School Children Should Learn About Music, 4

What Children Need to Know and Able to Do in Music, 4

National Standards for Music Education, 5

The Amount of Time that Should Be Allocated for Music, 5

Materials and Equipment Needed to Teach Music, 6

II AN INTRODUCTION TO THE ELEMENTS

OF MUSIC AND MUSIC CONCEPTS, 8

The Elements of Music, 9

Expressive Qualities, 9

Melody, 10

Rhythm, 11

Form, 12

Harmony, 12

III MUSIC-MAKING ACTIVITIES, 15

Listening, 16

Playing Instruments, 19

Singing, 29

Movement, 38

Creating Music, 41

Reading and Notating Music, 44

IV THE WORLD OF MUSIC, 48

Western Art Music, 49

World Music, 51

Jazz, 58

Women in Music, 60

Popular Music, 61

National Standards for Music Education, 62

V APPROACHES TO CURRICULUM, 64

The Comprehensive Musicianship Approach, 64

Dalcroze Eurhythmics, 67

The Orff Schulwerk Approach, 68

The Kodály Approach, 72

Theory of Music Learning: Edwin E. Gordon, 74

The Eclectic Approach, 76

VI CURRICULAR DEVELOPMENTS, 78

Music Technology in the Elementary Classroom, 78

Integrating Music, the Arts, and Other Subjects, 83

Teaching Music to Special Learners, 90

Cooperative Learning, 95

The Prekindergarten Child and Music, 97

VII PLANNING AND ASSESSING MUSIC LEARNING, 104

Planning: Goals and Objectives, 104

Lesson Planning, 105

Assessing Music Learning, 106

Sample Assessment Strategy, 107

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 108

SECTION TWO

Model Experiences for Teaching Music, 111

The Model Experience Format, 112

Presenting a Model Experience, 114

Teaching Tips, 115

Developmental Characteristics of K—5th Grade Students, 116

Scope and Sequence Chart of Music Concepts in

Model Experiences–Levels I—III, 118

LEVEL 1: MODEL EXPERIENCES

FOR KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE, 119

Sequence of Songs and Listening Selections–Level I (Grades K—1), 120

Model 1 “Golden Gate” (traditional chant), 122

Model 2 “Riding in the Buggy” (American folk song), 124

Model 3 “Parade,” from Divertissement, by Ibert, 126

Model 4 “Sally, Go ’Round the Sun” (American folk song), 128

Model 5 Hungarian Dance no. 5, by Brahms, 130

Model 6 “Looby Loo” (Traditional), 132

Model 7 “Ballet of the Unhatched Chicks,” from Pictures at an Exhibition,

by Mussorgsky, 134

Model 8 “John the Rabbit” (American folk song), 138

Model 9 “The Elephant,” from Carnival of the Animals, by Saint-Saëns, 140

“The Aviary,” from Carnival of the Animals, by Saint-Saëns, 140

Model 10 “Five Angels” (German folk song), 142

Model 11 “Wishy Washy Wee” (American folk song), 144

Model 12 “Head-Shoulders, Baby” (African-American game song), 146

Model 13 “Anaguta Drums” (Nigeria) (excerpt), 148

“Munomuno” (Mulondo, Uganda) (excerpt), 148

Model 14 “Wake Me!” (African-American song), 150

Model 15 “Matarile” (Mexican folk song), 152

Sequence of Music Concepts–Level I (Grades K—1), 121

Model Experiences, 122

Evaluation for College Students–Level I, 154

Creating a Model Experience–Level I, 155

Elementary Music Series Textbook Assignment–Level I, 156

LEVEL II: MODEL EXPERIENCES

FOR SECOND AND THIRD GRADES, 157

Sequence of Songs and Listening Selections–Level II (Grades 2—3), 158

Model 16 “Sing about Martin!” by “Miss Jackie”Weissman, 160

Model 17 “Barcarolle,” from Tales of Hoffman, by Offenbach (excerpt), 162

“Devil’s Dance,” from The Soldier’s Tale, by Stravinsky, 162

Model 18 “Shoo, Fly” (American folk song), 164

Model 19 “Chinese Dance,” from Nutcracker Suite, by Tchaikovsky, 166

Model 20 “Willowbee” (American game song), 168

Model 21 “Kangaroos,” from Carnival of the Animals, by Saint-Saëns, 170

Model 22 “Cielito Lindo” (Mexico: trumpets) (excerpt), 172

“Cielito Lindo” (Mexico: guitar) (excerpt), 172

Model 23 “The Stars and Stripes Forever,” by Sousa (excerpt), 176

Model 24 “Chatter with the Angels” (African-American song), 178

Model 25 Canzona, by Gabrieli (excerpt), 180

Trout Quintet, fourth movement, by Schubert (excerpt), 180

Serenade for Wind Instruments, Theme and Variations (K. 361),

by Mozart (excerpt), 180

Toccata, third movement, by Chávez (excerpt), 180

Model 26 “Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring,” from Cantata no. 147, by Bach (excerpt), 184

Model 27 “Ebeneezer Sneezer,” by Olson, 186

Model 28 “Hanukkah” (Hebrew folk song), 188

Model 29 “Song of the Dragon” (Chinese folk melody), 190

Model 30 “Hop Up, My Ladies” (American folk song), 192

Sequence of Music Concepts–Level II (Grades 2—3), 159

Model Experiences, 160

Evaluation for College Students–Level II, 194

Creating a Model Experience–Level II, Assignments 1 and 2, 195

Elementary Music Series Textbook Assignment–Level II, 197

LEVEL III: MODEL EXPERIENCES

FOR FOURTH AND FIFTH GRADES, 199

Sequence of Songs and Listening Selections–Level III (Grades 4—5), 200

Model 31 “Pianists” from Carnival of the Animals, by Saint-Saëns, 202

Model 32 “Hawaiian Rainbows” (modern Hawaiian song), 204

Model 33 Haiku sound piece, 208

Model 34 “Carillon” from L’Arlésienne Suite no. 1, by Bizet, 210

Model 35 “Viennese Musical Clock” from Háry János Suite, by Kodály, 212

Model 36 “Hey, Lidee” (American song), 214

Model 37 “Stomp Dance” (Cherokee Indian) (excerpt), 216

“Mai Wakaringano” (Zimbabwe) (excerpt), 216

“Ho Jamalo” (India-Pakistan) (excerpt), 216

Model 38 “Corn Grinding Song” (Navajo Indian), 218

Model 39 “Haoli Dance” (Tunisia) (excerpt), 222

“Rippling Water” (Vietnam) (excerpt), 222

“Barong Dance” (Bali) (excerpt), 222

Model 40 “Wabash Cannon Ball” (traditional), 226

Model 41 “Joe Turner Blues” (American blues), 228

Model 42 “Piffle Rag,” by Yelvington, 232

Model 43 “Take Five,” by Desmond (excerpt), 236

LIN05-FM-i-xviiihr 12/1/05 10:16 AM Page ix

x Contents

Model 44 “Jamaica Farewell” (traditional calypso from the West Indies), 238

Model 45 “Four on the Floor,” by Larsen (excerpt), 240

Archduke Trio, second movement, by Beethoven (excerpt), 240

Sequence of Music Concepts–Level III (Grades 4—5), 201

Model Experiences, 202

Evaluation for College Students–Level III, 244

Creating a Model Experience–Level III, Assignments 1 and 2, 246

Elementary Music Series Textbook Assignment–Level III, 248

SECTION THREE

Instruments, 249

The Autoharp and the Chromaharp®, 250

The Guitar and the Baritone Ukulele, 254

The Keyboard, 261

The Soprano Recorder, 272

The Voice, 276

SECTION FOUR

Songs, 279

APPENDIXES, 401

A REFERENCE MATERIAL

FOR MUSIC FUNDAMENTALS, 403

B EVALUATION FORMS, 414

Self-Evaluation of Model Experience Presentation, 414

Evaluation of Model Experience Presentation, 416

Music Software Program Evaluation, 417

C ELEMENTARY MUSIC SERIES, 419

Jump Right In: The General Music Series (Grades 1—3), 419

Making Music (K-6), 419

Music Expressions (K-6), 419

Share the Music (K-8), 419

Spotlight on Music (K-8), 419

D A COLLECTION OF CHANTS,

PROVERBS, AND POEMS, 421

E TIMELINE OF MUSIC, 425

F MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

FOR ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM MUSIC, 429

GLOSSARY, 447

SUBJECT INDEX, 451

MUSIC INDEX, 454

RESOURCES FOR HOLIDAYS, SEASONS, AND SPECIAL

OCCASIONS IN THE MUSICAL CLASSROOM, 456

Preface

PREFACE

To Instructors

The Musical Classroom: Backgrounds, Models, and Skills for Elementary Teaching, Fifth Edition, is designed primarily for use in a one-semester music course for the elementary education major and can also serve as a resource for music education majors and in-service teachers. The book is available by itself or as a book/CD package. The Musical Classroom helps students develop skills in music teaching while at the same time providing introductory experiences in playing and reading music.

WHAT'S IN THE MUSICAL CLASSROOM?

The text is divided into four sections and six appendixes.

Section One, Backgrounds for Teaching Music is an introduction to teaching music in the elementary classroom. The section begins with an introduction, "Music in the Elementary School," followed by a description of the elements of music and the music-making experiences that are the basis for the model experiences in Section Two. A chapter on "The World of Music" introduces students to the many styles of music and identifies their importance in the curriculum. The current approaches to elementary curriculum are concisely described, including the Kodaly and Orff approaches and the Gordon Learning Theory. The "Curricular Developments" chapter presents material for special learners and up-to-date information on music technology in the classroom. Also in this edition are discussions of cooperative learning, integrating music, the arts, and other subjects into the curriculum, and the pre-kindergarten child and music. The National Standards for Music Education, Grades K-4, are presented and integrated throughoutSection One. Section One concludes with an introduction to "Planning and Assessing Music Learning." Practical applications of the curricular approaches and developments presented in this section are highlighted throughout the model experiences of Section Two.

Section Two, Model Experiences for Teaching Music is a concrete expression of Section One, "Backgrounds for Teaching Music." Section Two consists of 48 model experiences, sequentially organized and based on the elements of music: melody, rhythm, harmony, form, and expressive qualities (tempo, dynamics, timbre). The 59 musical selections for the 48 model experiences are included on an accompanying CD (see p. 441). The model experiences may be taught in the college classroom by instructors or by students, with large or small groups. They may also be used in elementary classrooms. The model experiences move from simple to complex through three levels: I (Kindergarten and Grade 1), II (Grades 2 and 3), and III (Grades 4 and 5). Each model focuses on a single music concept and provides for assessing student learning through stated objectives and indicators for success. Key terms are identified. Learning may be expanded by using the Follow-Ups and the Projects for College Students that follow each model. A listing of "Related Literature and Media for Children" is included for many model experiences. Practical applications of the curricular approaches and developments presented in Section One are highlighted throughout the model experiences of this section.

Musical examples in the model experiences are from all styles: standard orchestral literature from Bach to Stravinsky, world music, American jazz, and folk and school songs that have proved their appeal to generations of students and teachers. Songs used in the model experiences are within the singing ranges specified for each of Levels I-III.

Section Three, Instruments provides introductory information about playing Autoharp, guitar, baritone ukulele, piano, and soprano recorder as well as information about the singing voice. There are descriptions of hand and body positions, fingerings, and strums, including keyboard drawings, chord frames, tuning instructions, and fingering charts. Lists of specific songs that may be used in a sequential music-reading and skills curriculum are presented for each instrument. These sequential lists identify songs by key, by number of chords/pitches, and by strumming patterns. All songs may be found in Section Four of the text.

Section Four, Songs features 135 songs from a variety of styles for use in the model experiences and instrumental work. Nearly all the favorite songs of the earlier editions are retained. and there are several songs new to this fifth edition.

Six Appendixes are presented, including (A) Reference Material for Music Fundamentals; (B) Evaluation Forms; (C) Descriptions of the Elementary Music Series; (D) A Collection of Chants, Proverbs, and Poems; (E) Timeline of Music and History; and (F) Resources. The text concludes with a Glossary, a list of the CD contents, and two Indexes.

HOW TO USE THE MUSICAL CLASSROOM IN YOUR COLLEGE CLASSROOM

The Musical Classroom, Fifth Edition, is designed primarily for the elementary education major with no music background. The authors suggest integrating Sections One to Four simultaneously. Descriptions of ways that instructors can use the various components follow.

Many instructors begin a course for the non-music major with a concise review, a presentation of the fundamentals of music, or both. Because college students often "teach as they have been taught," the authors recommend introducing model experiences (Level I) simultaneously with the fundamentals study. In this way, fundamentals work can continue while appropriate experiences for elementary school children are introduced. These Level I model experiences may be taught by the college instructor or by college students with music background, and at the conclusion of each model, students can review music fundamentals (in the Projects for College Students) in connection with the concept in the model experience.

To apply fundamentals to music making, the authors recommend simultaneously starting instrumental study (keyboard, soprano recorder, guitar, baritone ukulele) with the Level I model experiences. Some instructors may wish to have all students in a class study the same instrument; in that case, a particular instrumental focus of Section Three could be used. Guitar, soprano recorder, baritone ukulele, and keyboard are introduced, and lists of melodies in order of difficulty are presented. All specified melodies are in the text. For example, "The Keyboard" identifies many songs in the five-finger position, and "The Recorder" includes a list of nearly 50 songs.

Section Three's information about instruments can be used with an entire class, by small groups, or by individuals. If a class meets in a room with multiple keyboards, an instructor can use "The Keyboard" portion of Section Three. Other instructors may prefer to have students choose an instrument to learn and then study the instrument in small groups. For example, a recorder group could be utilizing "The Recorder" portion while a guitar group works with "The Guitar" portion. All instrumental groups could be working simultaneously or individual students could use a specific instrumental portion of Section Three and work on their own, with instructor guidance. A student who already plays one instrument can independently use this material to review previous skills (or to learn a new instrument) and can refer to the sequential lists of songs to locate material in the text.

The semester work might continue with the instrumental and music fundamentals study in combination with presentations of model experiences from Levels II-III given by students. Section One, "Backgrounds for Teaching Music," could be used at any point in the course, but introducing some of the material before students begin presenting model experiences may make music learning more meaningful.

Model experiences are designed to provide for maximum flexibility and usefulness. Additional music is listed at the end of each model experience under Other Music, and any of these selections may substitute for the musical example presented by the authors. Level I model experiences are designed for use with Kindergarten and Grade 1 students, but they may also serve older students as a review or an assessment of basic concepts, skills, and vocabulary. (When using Level I model experiences with older students, it would be appropriate to substitute musical examples that are age-appropriate for the older students.) Although statements to pupils are suggested (in capital letters in the text), these experiences are intended as models and should be modified to reflect varying learning objectives and styles. Indeed, college students are challenged to design their own model experiences using assignments that are included at the end of each level. These assignments suggest possible songs and orchestral selections to use and become more challenging at each successive level.

Instructors can assess student learning by using the numerous Projects for College Students. At the conclusion of each level I-III is an Evaluation for College Students, as well as assignments that provide guidelines for creating original lessons and evaluating elementary music series textbooks.

When instructors integrate the instrumental and music fundamentals study (Section Three, Appendix A, and Level I), conceptual music experiences for elementary school children (Section Two), and backgrounds on music in the elementary school (Section One), college students simultaneously develop their musical and teaching skills. Although this integration is advocated by the authors, college professors should obviously use the components of the text in any sequence or combination that will work for them.

To Students

The Musical Classroom, Fifth Edition, is designed for you, the prospective elementary school teacher. It assumes no background in music, but it does assume that you have a genuine interest in bringing music and children together.

You might think "How can I teach music? I cannot play the piano or even sing very well." One does not need to be an accomplished performer to teach music in the elementary classroom. You do need a fundamental understanding of how music "works," and you do need to know how to convey that understanding to others.

To help you prepare to teach tomorrow's children, The Musical Classroom includes model lessons in music that may be understood (and taught) with little or no musical background. In fact, it is possible to develop an understanding about music while teaching others. And this active involvement in teaching nearly always leads to a desire to develop performance skills. We believe it is possible to do all of these simultaneously: to develop an understanding about music, to share that understanding while teaching others, and to learn to play a musical instrument.

This text succeeds only when those who use it say, "We did it ourselves." As every journey begins with a single step, the use of this text represents that first step. Its music and models should be used to develop a philosophy and style so meaningful and so personal that the model will hardly be remembered. Only you, the learner, can plan the lifetime journey that will expand your musical literacy, refine your performance skills, and perfect your teaching skills. Those who love music and children with equal passion will always be able to develop their own ingenious means for bringing children into intimate touch with all the excitement of the world of music.

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