Scholars have long debated the intentions of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Middle East. Some claim the organization supports terrorism, while others believe it is a positive force for democratization. Though the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe has attracted less attention, many feel they understand the group just as well, for they assume it is closely tied to its Middle Eastern counterpart. Critics believe Europe's Muslim Brotherhood is a suspicious, secretive, and centrally led organization, increasing the alienation of Europe's Muslims, while sympathizers regard the Brotherhood as a moderate, westernized, and fully integrated force for good. In this volume, experts on Europe's Muslim Brotherhood provide richer, more impartial perspectives on the critical issues relating to the group. It confronts Brotherhood organizations in different European contexts and traces their highly specific relationships with non-Muslim press outlets and authorities.
About the Author
Roel Meijer teaches modern Middle Eastern history at the Radboud University in Nijmegen. Edwin Bakker is professor of counterterrorism studies at Leiden University.
Table of Contents
About the Contributors xi
Part I General Trends
1 The Muslim Brotherhood in Europe and the Middle East: The Evolution of a Relationship Steven Brooke 27
2 The European Organisation of the Muslim Brotherhood: Myth or Reality? Lorenzo Vidino 51
3 Dernocratisation and Secularisation in the Muslim Brotherhood: The International Dimension Anne Sofie Roald 71
4 The European Muslim Brothers' Quest to Become a Social (Cultural) Movement Brigitte Maréchal 89
Part II Countries
5 The Muslim Brotherhood in Britain Innes Bowen 111
6 Muslim 'Double talk' and the ways of the Shari'a in France Frank Peter 127
7 The Autonomisation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe: Da'wa, Mixité and Non-Muslims Cédric Baylocq 149
8 The Public Image of the Muslim Brotherhood in the Netherlands Edwin Bakker 169
9 From Syria to Spain: The Rise and Decline of the Muslim Brothers Elena Arigita Rafael Ortega 189
10 The Islamic Community in Germany: an Organisation under Observation Stefan Meining 209
Part III The Intellectual Legacy
11 'What Would Hasan al-Banna Do?: Modern (Re-)Interpretations of the Brotherhood's Founding Discourse Carrie Rosefsky Wickham 241
12 Wayward Son: The Muslim Brothers' Reception of Sayyid Qutb John Calvert 249
13 Opening to Reform: Hasan al-Hudaybi's Legacy Barbara Zollner 273
14 The Muslim Brotherhood and the Political: an Exercise in Ambiguity Roel Meijer 295
What People are Saying About This
A very timely collection of contributions by a fine group of first class scholars. These contributors portray the Muslim Brotherhood and its complex intellectual and ideological heritage and its attempt to come to grips with multiple contem¬porary challenges. While critically assessing the Muslim Brotherhood's enduring secrecy and monopolistic claims about its representativeness, the volume convincingly argues that the organization has dramatically changed over the decades. It is now a moderate movement, as diverse as the national environments in which its affiliated organizations operate. This collection confronts head-on the argument of pundits who argue that Islam cannot change.