Leo Saint-Clair, alias the Nyctalope, was created in 1911 by Jean de La Hire, one of France's most prolific serial writers. Gifted with night vision, hypnotic powers and an artificial heart, Saint-Clair is a fearless hero who battles colorful super-villains. His adventures, which spanned 30 years, created a template that was later adopted by such pulp heroes as Doc Savage (1933), before providing the core mythology of American comic books. In the second part of The Nyctalope vs Lucifer trilogy (1921), the Nyctalope’s battle against faces Baron Glô von Warteck, a.k.a. Lucifer, moves to villain’s underwater city in the Bermudas. Just as Captain America, is the incarnation of the Stars and Stripes, the Nyctalope, stood for the ideals of Colonial France between two world wars. Jean-Marc Lofficier.