Has the virtual invaded the realm of the real, or has the real expanded its definition to include what once was characterized as virtual? With the continual evolution of digital technology, this distinction grows increasingly hazy. But perhaps the distinction has become obsolete; perhaps it is time to pay attention to the intersections, mutations, and transmigrations of the virtual and the real. Certainly it is time to reinterpret the practice and study of music. The Oxford Handbook of Music and Virtuality, edited by Sheila Whiteley and Shara Rambarran, is the first book to offer a kaleidoscope of interdisciplinary perspectives from scholars around the globe on the way in which virtuality mediates the dissemination, acquisition, performance, creation, and reimagining of music. The Oxford Handbook of Music and Virtuality addresses eight themes that often overlap and interact with one another. Questions of the role of the audience, artistic agency, individual and communal identity, subjectivity, and spatiality repeatedly arise. Authors specifically explore phenomena including holographic musicians and virtual bands, and the benefits and detriments surrounding the free circulation of music on the internet. In addition, the book investigates the way in which fans and musicians negotiate gender identities as well as the dynamics of audience participation and community building in a virtual environment. The handbook rehistoricizes the virtual by tracing its progression from cartoons in the 1950s to current industry innovations and changes in practice. Well-grounded and wide-reaching, this is a book that students of any number of disciplines, from Music to Cultural Studies, have awaited.
About the Author
The late Sheila Whiteley was Professor Emeritus (the University of Salford, UK) and a Research Fellow at the Bader International Study Centre, Queen's University, Ontario, Canada. She is author of Too Much Too Young: Popular Music, Age and Identity (2005). Shara Rambarran is an Assistant Professor of Music and Cultural Studies at the Bader International Study Centre, Queen's University, Canada. Shara gained her PhD in Music and Cultural Studies at the University of Salford.
Table of ContentsList of Figures and Tables Companion Website and List of Musical Examples List of Contributors Acknowledgements Preface Andy Bennett Introduction Sheila Whiteley PART 1 The Pre-Digital Virtual Introduction 1 In Seventeenth Heaven: Virtual Listening and its Discontents Christian Lloyd 2 Nothing is Real: The Beatles as Virtual Performers Philip Auslander and Ian Inglis 3 Tom, Jerry and the Virtual Virtuoso Sheila Whiteley 4 Bring that Beat Back: Sampling as Virtual Collaboration Rowan Oliver 5 An Analysis of Virtuality in the Creation and Reception of the Music of Frank Zappa Paul Carr PART 2 Vocaloids, Holograms and Virtual Pop Stars Introduction 6 Vocaloids and Japanese Virtual Vocal Performance: The Cultural Heritage and Technological Futures of Vocal Puppetry Louise H. Jackson and Mike Dines 7 Hatsune Miku and Japanese Virtual Idols Rafal Zaborowski 8 Hatsune Miku, 2.0Pac and Beyond: Rewinding and Fast-Forwarding the Virtual Pop Star Thomas Conner 9 "Feel Good" with Gorillaz and "Reject False Icons": The Fantasy Worlds of the Virtual Group and their Creators Shara Rambarran PART 3 Second Life Introduction 10 Avatar Rockstars: Constructing Musical Personae in Virtual Worlds Trevor S. Harvey 11 Performing Live in Second Life Justin Gagen and Nicholas Cook 12 Live Opera Performance in Second Life: Challenging Producers, Performers and the Audience Marco Antonio Chávez-Aguayo PART 4 Authorship, Creativity and Musicianship Introduction 13 We Are, The Colors: Collaborative Narration and the Experimental Construction of a Non-Existent Band Alon Ilsar and Charles Fairchild 14 Music in Perpetual Beta: Composition, Remediation, and 'Closure' Paul Draper and Frank Millward 15 Justin Bieber Featuring Slipknot: Consumption as Mode of Production Ragnhild Brøvig-Hanssen 16 Human After All: Understanding Negotiations of Artistic Identity through the Music of Daft Punk Cora S. Palfy 17 Virtual Bands: Recording Music Under the Big Top David Tough PART 5 Communities and the World-Wide-Web Introduction 18 "Uploading" to Carnegie Hall: The First YouTube Symphony Orchestra Shzr Ee Tan 19 The Listener as Remixer: Mix Stems in Online Fan Community and Competition Contexts Samantha Bennett 20 Sample Sharing: Virtual Laptop Ensemble Communities Benjamin O'Brien 21 Stone Tapes: Ghost Box, Nostalgia, and Post-War England David Pattie 22 From Hypnagogia to Distroid: Postironic Musical Renderings of Personal Memory Adam Trainer 23 Bands in Virtual Spaces, Social Networking and Masculinity Danijela Bogdanovic PART 6 Sonic Environments and Musical Experience Introduction 24 From Environmental Sound To Virtual Environment Enhancing: Consuming Ambiance as Listening Practice Thomas Brett 25 App Music Jeremy Wade Morris 26 Alternative Virtuality. Independent Micro Labels Facing the Ideological Challenge of Virtual Music Culture: The Case of Finnish Ektro Records Juho Kaitajärvi-Tiekso 27 Everybody Knows There is Here: Surveying the Indexi-Local in CBC Radio 3 Michael Audette-Longo 28 Mind Usurps Program: Virtuality and the "New Machine Aesthetic" of Electronic Dance Music Benjamin Halligan PART 7 Participatory Culture and Fundraising Introduction 29 Virtual Music, Virtual Money: The Impact of Crowdfunding Models on Creativity, Authorship and Identity Mark Thorley 30 With a Little Help From My Friends, Family and Fans. DIY, Participatory Culture and Social Capital in Music Crowdfunding Francesco D'Amato 31 Music and Crowdfunded Websites: Digital Patronage and Artist-Fan Interactivity Justin Williams and Ross Wilson PART 8 Authors' Blog: Final Thoughts on Music and Virtuality Ed. Paul Carr PART 9 Glossary Ed. Shara Rambarran Index