The Perception of Illusory Contours is a complete and comprehensive volume on one of the most important phenomena in modern perception research. An illusory contour is a demonstration in which people perceive edges, surfaces, objects and colors that have no physical reality. The international group of distinguished researchers which comprise the contributors to the volume present new theoretical interpretations and data in addition to reviewing the extensive literature on this topic. The volume begins with an introduction to the research on and theories behind illusory contours and their applications to other areas of perception, cognitive science and art. The collection also features English language translations of the seminal papers by Schumann, Ehrenstein, and Kanizsa, the scientists who originally discovered and investigated the phenomenon. The Perception of Illusory Contours contains the most comprehensive set of illusory contour figures ever assembled. The volume is a most significant reference work in an area of research at the critical intersection of perception, cognitive science, visual neurophysiology, and artificial intelligence.
|Publisher:||Springer New York|
Table of ContentsSection I: Introductory and Historical Material.- 1 Top-Down and Bottom-Up: The Illusory Contour as a Microcosm of Issues in Perception.- History.- Definitions.- The Common Types of Illusory Contours.- Stereopsis and the Illusory Contour.- Illusory Contours, Art, and Graphic Design.- Theories of Illusory Contours.- The Plan of the Book.- 2 Contributions to the Analysis of Visual PerceptionFirst Paper: Some Observations on the Combination of Visual Impressions into Units.- Addendum.- 3 Modifications of the Brightness Phenomenon of L. Hermann.- Hermann’s Phenomenon (Hering’s Contrast Grid Phenomenon).- Modifications of Hermann’s Phenomenon.- Towards an Explanation of the Phenomenon.- 4 Quasi-Perceptual Margins in Homogeneously Stimulated Fields.- Lines and Contours.- Virtual Lines.- Quasi-Perceptual Margins.- 1986 Addendum.- Section II Theoretical Analyses.- 5 Cues for Edge and the Origin of Illusory Contours: An Alternative Approach.- Illusory Contours and the Spread of Induced Brightness and Color.- Illusory Contours in the Absence of Induced Brightness or Color.- Illusory Contours and Apparent Depth.- Illusory Contours and Cues for Edge.- Illusory Contours as a Member of a Class of Perceptual Effects.- Concluding Comments.- 6 A Problem-Solving Approach to Illusory Contours.- The Sensory Theory: Contrast.- A Problem-Solving Theory.- Final Remarks.- 7 Anomalous Figures and the Tendency to Continuation.- Amodal Completion and Amodal Continuation.- The Role of Brightness Contrast.- The Role of Points and Ends of Lines as Inducing Elements.- 8 Illusory Figures and Pictorial Objects.- Illusory Figures Are Cognitive Creations.- Illusory Figures Are Not “Pictured”.- In Conclusion.- 9 Illusory Contours and Occluding Surfaces.- Approaches to Views of Perception and Illusions.- Illusory Contours and Ghostly Surfaces.- Invoking Surfaces.- The Role of Cognition.- Conclusion.- Section III Physiologically Based Analyses and Models.- 10 Visual Perception of Surfaces: A Biological Theory.- Section 1: Stereopsis.- Section 2: Motion.- Section 3: Color.- Discussion.- 11 The Existence of Interpolated Illusory Contours Depends on Contrast and Spatial Separation.- Experimental Methods.- Interpolated Contours and Signs of Local Contrast.- Spatial Integration of Contour Detectors.- The Nonlinear Border Detector.- 12 The Role of Illusory Contours in Visual Segmentation.- The Role of Illusory Contours in Visual Segmentation.- Dissociation Between Visible Contrasts and Recognized Groupings.- Hierarchical Resolution of the Boundary Uncertainty Induced by Orientational Sensitivity.- Spatially Short-Range Competitive Interactions.- Spatially Long-Range Cooperative Interactions.- All Boundaries Are Invisible.- Computer Simulations of Boundary Segmentation by the CC Loop.- Related Concepts.- 13 The Relationship Between Spatial Filtering and Subjective Contours.- 14 A Dynamic Model of Anomalous Figures.- Section 1: The Field Activation.- Section 2: The Field Gaps.- Section 3: The Intrafigural Polarizarion.- Section 4: Interaction Between Activation, Inhomogeneities, and Polarization.- Concluding Remarks.- 15 The Resonance Theory of Kinetic Shape Perception and the Motion-Induced Contour.- Perceptual Illusions and Confusions.- The Motion-Induced Contour and Structure from Motion.- The Resonance Theory.- Perceptual Organization in Three Dimensions.- The Edge of an Event.- Perceptual Ecology.- Section IV Brightness and Spatial Factors.- 16 An Object Perception Approach to Static and Kinetic Subjective Contours.- Direct Tests of Brightness and Configural Factors.- Subjective Figure Perception Across Space and Time: Kinetic Subjective Contours and Related Phenomena.- Prospects for an Object Perception Theory: The Identity of Subjective Figure Perception and Ordinary Perception of Partly Occluded Objects.- A Discontinuity Theory of Unit Formation in Subjective Figures and Partly Occluded Objects.- Prospects and Problems for a Discontinuity Theory.- 17 Subjective Contour Strength and Perceptual Superimposition: Transparency as a Special Case.- Contrast and Assimilation.- Experiment 1: Subjective Contour and Transparency.- Experiment 2: Matching of Brightness Differences.- Summary.- 18 The Functional Equivalence of Objective and Illusory Brightness Enhancement.- Report of the Research.- Task 1: Relationship Between Illusory and Objective Brightness Thresholds.- Task 2: Comparison of the Small Square in the Double Configuration with the Small Square Alone.- Discussion.- 19 The Role of Illumination Level in the Strength of Subjective Contours.- A Comparison of Real and Subjective Contours.- Two Experiments.- A Psychophysical Conundrum.- Theoretical Implications.- 20 Increment Thresholds in Illusory Contour Line Patterns.- Increment Thresholds in Illusory Contour Patterns.- Increment Thresholds in the Ehrenstein Pattern.- A Physiological Basis of Illusory Contours?.- Section V Time, Motion, and Reaction Time.- 21 Time, Motion, and Objectness in Illusory Contours.- Microgenesis of Real and Illusory Contours.- Some Data.- General Discussion.- Speculations.- 22 Cognitive Contours and Perceptual Organization.- 23 The Current State of Research into Visual Phantoms.- Phantoms and Lightness Relationships in Displays.- Spatial and Temporal Properties of Phantoms.- Figural Cues with Phantoms.- Mechanisms Underlying Phantoms.- 24 Amodal Completion and Illusory Figures: An Information-Processing Analysis.- The Co-occurrence of Completion and Illusory Figures.- Two Hypotheses on Completion and Illusory Figures.- An Information-Processing Analysis.- Final Considerations.- 25 Illusory Contours, Texture Segregation, and a Configural Inferiority Effect.- Experiment 1.- Experiment 2.- Experiment 3.- Texture Segregation: Experiments 4 and 5.- General Discussion and Summary.- Section VI Illusory-Contour Appearance.- 26 Set and Subjective Contour.- Physiological Theories.- Cognitive Theories.- Perceptual Set and Subjective Contours.- Informal Evidence.- Experiment 1: Set and the Shape of Subjective Contours.- Experiment 2: An Indirect Measure.- Cognitive Factors and Subjective-Contour Perception.- 27 Can We See Constructs?.- The Place of Illusory Figures in Perceptual Theory.- The Energetic vs. Informational Dichotomy.- Retinoptic Constraints on Clarity and Shape.- The “Meaning” of Color Changes.- We See Products, Not Constructs.- 28 Lo, Perception Abhors Not a Contradiction.- Subjective Contours and Disconfirming Evidence Coexist.- Impressions of Unreality.- Why Are Subjective Contours Apparently Unreal?.- Comparison with Geometrical Illusions.- Perceptual Effects.- 29 The Perception of Illusory Contours: A Skills Analysis.- Perceptual Processing and Perceptual Skill.- Effort, Automaticity, and Perceptual Skill.- 30 Perceptual Grouping and Subjective Contours.- Perceptual “Wholes” and Subjective Contours.- When Collinearity Is Not EnoughSubjective Contours Delineating Large Areas.- The Importance of Amodal Completion.- Conclusions.- 31 Allusory Contours.- References.- Author Index.